How to format your references using the Virology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Matzinger P. The danger model: a renewed sense of self. Science. 2002;296:301–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rubin AF, Green P. Comment on “The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers.” Science. 2007;317:1500.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alexander RB, Smith RA, Schwarz GE. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature. 2000;403:758–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kendirlik EM, Sirt S, Kalkan SB, Dietsche W, Wegscheider W, Ludwig S, et al. Anomalous resistance overshoot in the integer quantum Hall effect. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3133.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Celant G, Broniatowski M. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Nagase H, editor. Chemistry of Opioids. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Penati A. The Role of Humanistic Disciplines in a Pedagogy of AdvanceDesign. In: Celi M, editor. Advanced Design Cultures: Long-Term Perspective and Continuous Innovation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Genetic Tweak Makes Mouse Brain Cells Behave Like Primates’. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Funding for Entitlement Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Jan. Report No.: PAD-78-46.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Scharf MT. Comparing Student Cumulative Course Grades, Attrition, and Satisfaction in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Environments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Offering Fresh Weapons Against Test Anxiety. New York Times. 2008 Jan 20;LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Journal
AbbreviationVirol. J.
ISSN (online)1743-422X
ScopeVirology
Infectious Diseases

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