How to format your references using the Virology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smil V. Laying down the law. Nature. 2000;403:597.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang J, Feringa BL. Dynamic control of chiral space in a catalytic asymmetric reaction using a molecular motor. Science. 2011;331:1429–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lissauer JJ, Dawson RI, Tremaine S. Advances in exoplanet science from Kepler. Nature. 2014;513:336–44.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tiwari M, Sharma D, Singh M, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zhu FXX, Hoehn R, Thakkar V, Yuh E. Hydroprocessing for Clean Energy. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Coventry BJ, editor. Cardio-Thoracic, Vascular, Renal and Transplant Surgery. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sykes P. Traffic Simulation with Paramics. In: Barceló J, editor. Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 131–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Amazing Photos Of The Supermoon Taken From Space. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Share the Road Safely Program Needs Better Evaluation of Its Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 May. Report No.: GAO-03-680.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Acosta J. Building bridges: A specialized training program for professionals in school settings to address bullying in LGBTQ youth: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Angelos J. The French Defection. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Journal
AbbreviationVirol. J.
ISSN (online)1743-422X
ScopeVirology
Infectious Diseases

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