How to format your references using the Virology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kramers J. Geology. The smile of the Cheshire cat. Science. 2001;293:619–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Roberson ED, Mucke L. 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science. 2006;314:781–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Koren I, Dagan G, Altaratz O. From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds. Science. 2014;344:1143–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang X, Ren X, Kahen K, Hahn MA, Rajeswaran M, Maccagnano-Zacher S, et al. Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature. 2009;459:686–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dodson B, Hammett PC, Klerx R. Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Hamilton KL, Devor DC, editors. Ion Channels and Transporters of Epithelia in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Güven Y, Barkana DE. Evaluation of an Orthopedic Surgical Robotic System Orthoroby on Bone Cadaver. In: Ao S-I, Amouzegar M, Rieger BB, editors. Intelligent Automation and Systems Engineering. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Environmentally Friendly Silver Nanoparticles Could Fight Microbes. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Administrative Operations and Financial Transactions, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Feb. Report No.: 092435.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Anderson PM. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. A Government Train To Tolstoy’s Birthplace. New York Times. 2002 Sep 1;53.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Journal
AbbreviationVirol. J.
ISSN (online)1743-422X
Infectious Diseases

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