How to format your references using the Virology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bowerman B. Cell signaling. Wnt moves beyond the canon. Science. 2008;320:327–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sillanpää MA, Hakonen PJ. Optomechanics: Hardware for a quantum network. Nature. 2014;507:45, 47.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rustagi D, Engel S, Kosfeld M. Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science. 2010;330:961–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shin Y-H, Grinberg I, Chen I-W, Rappe AM. Nucleation and growth mechanism of ferroelectric domain-wall motion. Nature. 2007;449:881–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Patterson SJ, Radtke JM. Strategic Communications for Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Hartzell AL. MEMS Reliability. da Silva MG, Shea HR, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Humphreys H, Winter B, Paul M. Microbiology Laboratory Diagnosis of Infection. In: Winter B, Paul M, editors. Infections in the Adult Intensive Care Unit. London: Springer; 2013. p. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Your Dog Has A Better Memory Than A Chimpanzee. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Strategic Sealift: Summary of Workshop on Crewing the Ready Reserve Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-94-177.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Packard JA. Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wakin DJ, Walsh MW. Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times. 2011 Dec 1;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Journal
AbbreviationVirol. J.
ISSN (online)1743-422X
Infectious Diseases

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