How to format your references using the Virology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. de Rose F. Meetings that changed the world: Paris 1951: The birth of CERN. Nature. 2008;455:174–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Frede J, Jones PH. Development. Permission to proliferate. Science. 2013;342:1183–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS. How and why do insects migrate? Science. 2006;313:794–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lugo JE, Doti R, Sanchez N, de la Mora MB, del Rio JA, Faubert J. The bifoil photodyne: a photonic crystal oscillator. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Free ML. CBT and Christianity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Lara MD. Sustainable Management of Natural Resources: Mathematical Models and Methods. Doyen L, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stobbelaar DJ, Hendriks K. Seasonality of Agricultural Landscapes: Reading Time and Place by Colours and Shapes. In: Palang H, Sooväli H, Printsmann A, editors. Seasonal Landscapes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 103–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology Journal.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. How Worms Changed The Course Of Life On Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Customs Automation: Internal Control Weaknesses in Customs’ Revenue Collection Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-89-50.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Herron M. Prescripton labels: Do you know what medication you are taking? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. The Legacies They Left. New York Times. 2006 Jan 1;14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology Journal
AbbreviationVirol. J.
ISSN (online)1743-422X
ScopeVirology
Infectious Diseases

Other styles