How to format your references using the Computers and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Neutze R. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. Snapshots of a protein quake. Science 2015;350:381.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Marmorstein R, Simon MC. Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear. Nature 2015;524:298–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Abramson J, Paz A, Philipson KD. Structural biology. It’s all in the symmetry. Science 2012;335:669–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Linnen CR, Kingsley EP, Jensen JD, Hoekstra HE. On the origin and spread of an adaptive allele in deer mice. Science 2009;325:1095–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Dewulf G, Blanken A, Bult-Spiering M. Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Bramley A, Brissaud D, Coutellier D, McMahon C, editors. Advances in Integrated Design and Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Saraiva MG. Brazil’s Rise and Its Soft Power Strategy in South America. In: Gardini GL, Almeida MHT de, editors. Foreign Policy Responses to the Rise of Brazil: Balancing Power in Emerging States, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 46–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Andrews R. Groundbreaking Test For Parkinson’s Disease Could Lead To Early Detection. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/groundbreaking-test-parkinsons-disease-lead-early-detection/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Army Airlift: Need To Use Air Lines of Communications for Essential Items. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
McCullough J. Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. A retrospective study to determine if these factors are correlated in a clinical setting. A project report. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Mann J. America’s dangerous ‘China fantasy.’ New York Times 2016:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Structures
AbbreviationComput. Struct.
ISSN (print)0045-7949
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation

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