How to format your references using the Computers and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Covington WW. Helping western forests heal. Nature 2000;408:135–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Armakolas A, Klar AJS. Left-right dynein motor implicated in selective chromatid segregation in mouse cells. Science 2007;315:100–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Pauly D, Hilborn R, Branch TA. Fisheries: Does catch reflect abundance? Nature 2013;494:303–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Mariathasan S, Weiss DS, Newton K, McBride J, O’Rourke K, Roose-Girma M, et al. Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP. Nature 2006;440:228–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Püschl W. Physik des Segelns. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Oliveira MVM, Woodcock J, editors. Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications: 12th Brazilian Symposium on Formal Methods, SBMF 2009 Gramado, Brazil, August 19-21, 2009 Revised Selected Papers. vol. 5902. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Bohigas O, Manubens M, Ros L. Navigating the Wrench-Feasible C-Space of Cable-Driven Hexapods. In: Bruckmann T, Pott A, editors. Cable-Driven Parallel Robots, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Dams In Sub-Saharan Africa Linked To An Increase In Malaria Rates. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/dams-sub-saharan-africa-linked-increase-malaria-rates/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. HHS Ability To Effectively Implement Incentive Funding for State Information Systems in the Aid to Families With Dependent Children Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Valenzuela J. Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Chapman MM, Vlasic B. Strong Domestic Sales Help Lift Chrysler’s Results. New York Times 2012:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Structures
AbbreviationComput. Struct.
ISSN (print)0045-7949
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation

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