How to format your references using the Computers and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Meisterernst M. Transcription. Mediator meets morpheus. Science 2002;295:984–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Robinson CM, Pfeiffer JK. Virology. Leaping the norovirus hurdle. Science 2014;346:700–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Long SB, Casey PJ, Beese LS. Reaction path of protein farnesyltransferase at atomic resolution. Nature 2002;419:645–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Saito F, Hirayasu K, Satoh T, Wang CW, Lusingu J, Arimori T, et al. Corrigendum: Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors. Nature 2018;554:554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Rossiter A. Professional Excellence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Apostolico A, Crochemore M, Park K, editors. Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 16th Annual Symposium, CPM 2005, Jeju Island, Korea, June 19-22, 2005. Proceedings. vol. 3537. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Owen JP, Hawley DM. Host-Parasite Interactions. In: Malagoli D, Ottaviani E, editors. Eco-immunology: Evolutive Aspects and Future Perspectives, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 73–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. Flexible Electronic Implants Wrap Around Tissues. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/flexible-electronic-implants-wrap-around-tissues/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. ADP Planning: SSA’s February 1989 Report on Computer Modernization Is Incomplete. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Purdy DW. Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Lipton E, Protess B, Lehren AW. Raft of Potential Conflicts In President’s Appointees. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Structures
AbbreviationComput. Struct.
ISSN (print)0045-7949
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles