How to format your references using the Computers and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Ravussin E. Physiology. A NEAT way to control weight? Science 2005;307:530–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Duchek P, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by EGF receptor signaling during Drosophila oogenesis. Science 2001;291:131–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Liu Y-Y, Slotine J-J, Barabási A-L. Controllability of complex networks. Nature 2011;473:167–73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Soubeyran P, Kowanetz K, Szymkiewicz I, Langdon WY, Dikic I. Cbl-CIN85-endophilin complex mediates ligand-induced downregulation of EGF receptors. Nature 2002;416:183–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Zwecher MJ. Retirement Portfolios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Humbert M, Evgenov OV, Stasch J-P, editors. Pharmacotherapy of Pulmonary Hypertension. vol. 218. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Ortiz C. The Private Military Company: An Entity at the Center of Overlapping Spheres of Commercial Activity and Responsibility. In: Jäger T, Kümmel G, editors. Private Military and Security Companies: Chances, Problems, Pitfalls and Prospects, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2007, p. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Structures.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. Elon Musk’s Hyperloop Is Actually Sort Of Happening. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/elon-musks-hyperloop-actually-sort-happening/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: NASA Should Better Inform Researchers about How to Appeal Dissemination Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Wang T. Trajectory Similarity Based Prediction for Remaining Useful Life Estimation. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kanter J. Google Yields To Regulators In Eurozone. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Structures
AbbreviationComput. Struct.
ISSN (print)0045-7949
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science
Modelling and Simulation

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