How to format your references using the International Communication of Chinese Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Communication of Chinese Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2010). World view: disaster, unmitigated. Nature, 465(7296), 287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rajagopalan, H., & Lengauer, C. (2004). Aneuploidy and cancer. Nature, 432(7015), 338–341.
A journal article with 3 authors
Draghici, C., Wang, T., & Spiegel, D. A. (2015). Concise total synthesis of glucosepane. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6258), 294–298.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Packer, C., Ikanda, D., Kissui, B., & Kushnir, H. (2005). Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature, 436(7053), 927–928.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bacon, C. R. (2012). Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, J., Ni, J., Sarangapani, J., & Mathew, J. (Eds.). (2014). Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). The Dynamical Analysis of Log Data Within Educational Games. In C. S. Loh, Y. Sheng, & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.), Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement (pp. 81–100). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Communication of Chinese Culture.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 6). New Contraceptive Lasts For Three Months And Protects Against HIV And Pregnancy. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Additional Work Remains to Ensure Delivery of Critical Services (No. T-AIMD-99-143). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, M. M. (2010). Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, September 22). Rikers Guards Accused of Turning a Blind Eye to, or Even Enabling, Sex Assaults. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2010; Rajagopalan and Lengauer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rajagopalan and Lengauer 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Packer et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Communication of Chinese Culture
AbbreviationInt. Commun. Chin. Cult.
ISSN (print)2197-4233
ISSN (online)2197-4241

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