How to format your references using the International Breastfeeding Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Breastfeeding Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wood SN. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems. Nature. 2010;466:1102–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Coombs R, Georghiou L. Research and development. A new “industrial ecology.” Science. 2002;296:471.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kiesel H, Renz A, Hasselbach F. Observation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss anticorrelations for free electrons. Nature. 2002;418:392–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lu M-X, Cao S-S, Du Y-Z, Liu Z-X, Liu P, Li J. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sci Rep. 2013;3:3211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Aasma A, Dutta H, Natarajan PN. An Introductory Course in Summability Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Parker D, editor. Bacterial Activation of Type I Interferons. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Greenwood D, Sommerville I. Expectations and Reality: Why an Enterprise Software System Did Not Work as Planned. In: Pooley R, Coady J, Schneider C, Linger H, Barry C, Lang M, editors. Information Systems Development: Reflections, Challenges and New Directions. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Breastfeeding Journal.

Blog post
1. Davis J. 2015 Nobel Prize For Chemistry Awarded For DNA Repair Studies [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Civil Service Commission Should Correct Weaknesses in Its Automatic Data Processing Policies and Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Nov. Report No.: FPCD-78-94.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Armani MD. Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Valentin Rasputin, ‘Village Prose’ Leader, Dies at 77. New York Times. 2015 Mar 19;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Breastfeeding Journal
AbbreviationInt. Breastfeed. J.
ISSN (online)1746-4358
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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