How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
di Lernia, S.: Cultural heritage: Save Libyan archaeology, Nature, 517(7536), 547–549, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carmeliet, P. and Jain, R. K.: Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis, Nature, 473(7347), 298–307, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller, J. R., Outlaw, R. A. and Holloway, B. C.: Graphene double-layer capacitor with ac line-filtering performance, Science, 329(5999), 1637–1639, 2010.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Masuzaki, H., Paterson, J., Shinyama, H., Morton, N. M., Mullins, J. J., Seckl, J. R. and Flier, J. S.: A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome, Science, 294(5549), 2166–2170, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R. G.: Color, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2004.
An edited book
Anderson, R.: Pro Arduino, edited by D. Cervo, Apress, Berkeley, CA., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgain, J.: An Improved Estimate in the Restricted Isometry Problem, in Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar (GAFA) 2011-2013, edited by B. Klartag and E. Milman, pp. 65–70, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Melting Glaciers, Shifting Biomes And Dying Trees In Our National Parks – Yet We Can Take Action On Climate Change, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Survey of the Activities of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stoecker, K.: Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL., 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: When the Gay Best Friend Is the Odd Man Out, New York Times, 3rd March, C3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (di Lernia, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Carmeliet and Jain, 2011; di Lernia, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carmeliet and Jain, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Masuzaki et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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