How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hofmann, D. C.: Materials science. Shape memory bulk metallic glass composites, Science, 329, 1294–1295, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pouille, F. and Scanziani, M.: Enforcement of temporal fidelity in pyramidal cells by somatic feed-forward inhibition, Science, 293, 1159–1163, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saito, C., Shinzawa, K., and Tsujimoto, Y.: Synchronized necrotic death of attached hepatocytes mediated via gap junctions, Sci. Rep., 4, 5169, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Bor, D., Rothen, N., Schwartzman, D. J., Clayton, S., and Seth, A. K.: Adults can be trained to acquire synesthetic experiences, Sci. Rep., 4, 7089, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu, H.: Shimizu’s Dermatology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
Srivastava, P. S., Narula, A., and Srivastava, S. (Eds.): Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XV, 400 p. 36 illus., 16 illus. in color pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenberg, E. and Zilber-Rosenberg, I.: Microbiotas are Transmitted Between Holobiont Generations, in: The Hologenome Concept: Human, Animal and Plant Microbiota, edited by: Zilber-Rosenberg, I., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 41–54, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
Everything You Need To Know About The Legal High Ban:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highlights of a Forum: 3D Printing: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Implications of Additive Manufacturing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paik, Y.: Redefining multidisciplinary teams: An institutional approach, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G.: Two Graphic Narratives, Inspired by the Fab Four, New York Times, 2nd January, C6, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hofmann, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hofmann, 2010; Pouille and Scanziani, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pouille and Scanziani, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bor et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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