How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Radman, M.: Fidelity and infidelity, Nature, 413(6852), 115, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, W. Y. and Sine, S. M.: Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors, Nature, 438(7065), 243–247, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Chah, O.-K. and Sheen, J.: Stem-cell-triggered immunity through CLV3p-FLS2 signalling, Nature, 473(7347), 376–379, 2011.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Jin, R., Cao, Y. C., Hao, E., Métraux, G. S., Schatz, G. C. and Mirkin, C. A.: Controlling anisotropic nanoparticle growth through plasmon excitation, Nature, 425(6957), 487–490, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephanie Hammer: Architects of Electronic Trading, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2013.
An edited book
Garas, A., Ed.: Interconnected Networks, 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Winter, S. S. and Taube, J. S.: Head Direction Cells: From Generation to Integration, in Space,Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation, edited by D. Derdikman and J. J. Knierim, pp. 83–106, Springer, Vienna., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Black Hole Winds Might Regulate Size of Galaxy, IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Observations on the FBI’s Interstate Identification Index, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi, Y.-J.: Function of Commissureless and Related Genes in Drosophila Neural Development, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH., 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leibovich, M.: The Real House Candidates of Beverly Hills, New York Times, 24th April, MM22, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Radman, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Sine, 2005; Radman, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Sine, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Jin et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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