How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cowan, J.: Astronomy: a constant surprise, Nature, 448, 29, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valadkhan, S. and Manley, J. L.: Splicing-related catalysis by protein-free snRNAs, Nature, 413, 701–707, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velarde, E., Ezcurra, E., and Anderson, D. W.: Seabird diets provide early warning of sardine fishery declines in the Gulf of California, Sci. Rep., 3, 1332, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kim, H., Doan, V. D., Cho, W. J., Madhav, M. V., and Kim, K. S.: Anisotropic charge distribution and anisotropic van der Waals radius leading to intriguing anisotropic noncovalent interactions, Sci. Rep., 4, 5826, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hetherington, S.: How to Know, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Dupuy, A. J. and Largaespada, D. A. (Eds.): Insertional Mutagenesis Strategies in Cancer Genetics, Springer, New York, NY, VIII, 200 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Mens, K. and Lozano, A.: Source Code-Based Recommendation Systems, in: Recommendation Systems in Software Engineering, edited by: Robillard, M. P., Maalej, W., Walker, R. J., and Zimmermann, T., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 93–130, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
New App Crunches Scientific Data While You Sleep:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Distance Education: Improved Data on Program Costs and Guidelines on Quality Assessments Needed to Inform Federal Policy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Survis, F. D.: Residential lawn water use and lawn irrigation practices: Wellington, Florida, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soble, J.: Airbag Crisis Sends Takata To Its Demise, New York Times, 26th June, B1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cowan, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Cowan, 2007; Valadkhan and Manley, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valadkhan and Manley, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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