How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kouwenhoven, L.: Nanotechnology. Bouncing a C60 ball, Nature, 407, 35–36, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warneken, F. and Tomasello, M.: Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees, Science, 311, 1301–1303, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarova, N. L., Levy, D. N., and Wodarz, D.: Synaptic transmission and the susceptibility of HIV infection to anti-viral drugs, Sci. Rep., 3, 2103, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Noh, J.-K., Kim, S., Kim, H., Choi, W., Chang, W., Byun, D., Cho, B.-W., and Chung, K. Y.: Mechanochemical synthesis of Li₂MnO₃ shell/LiMO₂ (M = Ni, Co, Mn) core-structured nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries, Sci. Rep., 4, 4847, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner, D. and Balog, E.: Advanced Technical Analysis of ETFs, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Gollmann, D., Lanet, J.-L., and Iguchi-Cartigny, J. (Eds.): Smart Card Research and Advanced Application: 9th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2010, Passau, Germany, April 14-16, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 239 p. 78 illus pp., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghezzi, C., Pezzè, M., and Tamburrelli, G.: Improving Interaction with Services via Probabilistic Piggybacking, in: Service-Oriented Computing: 11th International Conference, ICSOC 2013, Berlin, Germany, December 2-5, 2013, Proceedings, edited by: Basu, S., Pautasso, C., Zhang, L., and Fu, X., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 39–53, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
What Are Blood Groups and Why Do They Matter?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchins, M. G.: Domain Disparity: Informing the Debate between Domain-General and Domain-Specific Information Processing in Working Memory, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shoumali, K. and Hubbard, B.: U.S. Strike on Syria Fuels Uncertainty on the Ground, New York Times, 8th April, A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kouwenhoven, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kouwenhoven, 2000; Warneken and Tomasello, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Warneken and Tomasello, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Noh et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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