How to format your references using the Drinking Water Engineering and Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drinking Water Engineering and Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber, K.: Genetics: Deep exploration, Nature, 492, S56-7, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shendure, J. and Akey, J. M.: The origins, determinants, and consequences of human mutations, Science, 349, 1478–1483, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, N., Bu, X., and Feng, P.: Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity, Nature, 426, 428–432, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Farh, K. K.-H., Grimson, A., Jan, C., Lewis, B. P., Johnston, W. K., Lim, L. P., Burge, C. B., and Bartel, D. P.: The widespread impact of mammalian MicroRNAs on mRNA repression and evolution, Science, 310, 1817–1821, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zanotto, E. D.: Crystals in Glass, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Henein, M. Y. (Ed.): Valvular Heart Disease in Clinical Practice, Springer, London, X, 169 p. 174 illus., 92 illus. in color pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Holweg, M. and Bicheno, J.: The Reverse Amplification Effect in Supply Chains, in: Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Past, Present and Future, edited by: Pawar, K. S., Rogers, H., Potter, A., and Naim, M., Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 52–58, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drinking Water Engineering and Science.

Blog post
Study Sheds Light On The Origin Of Huntington’s Disease Within The Brain:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Need To Reexamine JTIDS Requirements and Architecture, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berezin, S.: Catechols as membrane anion transporters, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: Judges of a Graceful Sport, Caught in a Clumsy Cheating Scandal, New York Times, 17th July, A1, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garber, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Garber, 2012; Shendure and Akey, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shendure and Akey, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Farh et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrinking Water Engineering and Science
AbbreviationDrink. Water Eng. Sci.
ISSN (print)1996-9457
ISSN (online)1996-9465
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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