How to format your references using the International Archives of Allergy and Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huntington HP: Arctic science: The local perspective. Nature 2011;478:182–183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottfried K, Salpeter EE: Obituary: Hans A. Bethe (1906-2005). Nature 2005;434:970–971.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott L, Timmermann A, Thunell R: Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming. Science 2007;318:435–438.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bockrath M, Liang W, Bozovic D, Hafner JH, Lieber CM, Tinkham M, et al.: Resonant electron scattering by defects in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Science 2001;291:283–285.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein LSB, Schneider M: Stem Cells for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Ólafsson JH, Hay RJ (eds): Antibiotic and Antifungal Therapies in Dermatology. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghasemzadeh H, Guenterberg E, Jafari R: Lightweight Signal Processing for Wearable Body Sensor Networks; in Bonfiglio A, De Rossi D (eds): Wearable Monitoring Systems. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2011, pp 99–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Archives of Allergy and Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew E: South Korean Tech Company Announces World’s First Braille Smartwatch. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Satellite Control Systems: Opportunity for DOD to Implement Space Policy and Integrate Capabilities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams-Newball TI: Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez M, Fausset R: A Limitless City, Now Envisioning New Limitations. New York Times 2017;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
AbbreviationInt. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
ISSN (print)1018-2438
ISSN (online)1423-0097
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles