How to format your references using the Gene Expression Patterns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Expression Patterns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, T., 2001. Explanatory tyranny. Nature 411, 419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanchez, P.A., Swaminathan, M.S., 2005. Public health. Cutting world hunger in half. Science 307, 357–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, C., Wei, S., Hendrey, G., 2014. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration. Sci. Rep. 4, 5472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aono, N., Sutani, T., Tomonaga, T., Mochida, S., Yanagida, M., 2002. Cnd2 has dual roles in mitotic condensation and interphase. Nature 417, 197–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Picard, F., Tanguy, C., 2016. Innovations and Techno-ecological Transition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grgic, M., Delac, K., Ghanbari, M. (Eds.), 2009. Recent Advances in Multimedia Signal Processing and Communications, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tam, A.L., 2011. Mediastinal Biopsy, in: Gervais, D.A., Sabharwal, T. (Eds.), Interventional Radiology Procedures in Biopsy and Drainage. Springer, London, pp. 31–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Expression Patterns.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How To Build A City Fit For 50℃ Heatwaves [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Aviation Competition: Issues Related to the Proposed United Airlines-US Airways Merger (No. GAO-01-212). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, S., 2014. Keeping families together: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. British Invasion, Only This Time It’s in Retail. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Sanchez and Swaminathan, 2005; Taylor, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sanchez and Swaminathan, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Aono et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Expression Patterns
AbbreviationGene Expr. Patterns
ISSN (print)1567-133X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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