How to format your references using the Gene Expression Patterns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Expression Patterns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J., 2015. Scientific societies. Torture report prompts APA apology. Science 349, 221–222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lionetti, D., Agapie, T., 2014. Inorganic chemistry: How calcium affects oxygen formation. Nature 513, 495–496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, F., Chen, X., Vitousek, P., 2013. Chinese agriculture: An experiment for the world. Nature 497, 33–35.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kenward, B., Weir, A.A.S., Rutz, C., Kacelnik, A., 2005. Behavioural ecology: tool manufacture by naive juvenile crows. Nature 433, 121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort, H., 2005. Next Generation SDH/SONET. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
César, E., Alexander, M., Streit, A., Träff, J.L., Cérin, C., Knüpfer, A., Kranzlmüller, D., Jha, S. (Eds.), 2009. Euro-Par 2008 Workshops - Parallel Processing: VHPC 2008, UNICORE 2008, HPPC 2008, SGS 2008, PROPER 2008, ROIA 2008, and DPA 2008, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, August 25-26, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki, K., 2006. The Significance of Mycorrhizae in Forest Ecosystems, in: Suzuki, K., Ishii, K., Sakurai, S., Sasaki, S. (Eds.), Plantation Technology in Tropical Forest Science. Springer, Tokyo, pp. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Expression Patterns.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Indonesia Aims To Become The World Leader In Volcanically Generated Electricity [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Energy Research: Recovery of Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects (No. T-RCED-96-225). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grijalva, J.A., 2010. Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. Rangers Unearth Vigor in a Clinching Win. New York Times SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon, 2015; Lionetti and Agapie, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lionetti and Agapie, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kenward et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Expression Patterns
AbbreviationGene Expr. Patterns
ISSN (print)1567-133X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles