How to format your references using the Gene Expression Patterns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Expression Patterns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muchhala, N., 2006. Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage. Nature 444, 701–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennis, C., Byrne, N., 2004. Harvesting biotechnology. Nature 429, 1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fu, Y., Xu, Y., Chen, H., 2014. Additional modes in a waveguide system of zero-index-metamaterials with defects. Sci. Rep. 4, 6428.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fumagalli, L., Esfandiar, A., Fabregas, R., Hu, S., Ares, P., Janardanan, A., Yang, Q., Radha, B., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Gomila, G., Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., 2018. Anomalously low dielectric constant of confined water. Science 360, 1339–1342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Botsai, E., Kaneshiro, C., Cuccia, P., Pajo, H., 2010. The Architect’s Guide to Preventing Water Infiltration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shiffman, M.A. (Ed.), 2009. Breast Augmentation: Principles and Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Redaelli, A., Vesentini, S., Gautieri, A., Zunino, P., 2013. Multiscale modeling of diffusion phenomena in polymers, in: Buehler, M.J., Ballarini, R. (Eds.), Materiomics: Multiscale Mechanics of Biological Materials and Structures, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna, pp. 71–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Expression Patterns.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Fantastic Beasts And Where To Find Them: A History Of Monsters, From Werewolves To Hippogriffs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Higher Education: Selected Information on Student Financial Aid Received by Legal Immigrants (No. HEHS-96-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, P.A., 2012. Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly Beatty, J., Special to The New, 1985. EARLY DATA ARRIVE FROM PROBE ON VENUS. New York Times C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muchhala, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dennis and Byrne, 2004; Muchhala, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dennis and Byrne, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fumagalli et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Expression Patterns
AbbreviationGene Expr. Patterns
ISSN (print)1567-133X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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