How to format your references using the Gene Expression Patterns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Expression Patterns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ko, H., 2014. Neuroscience. Functional organization of synaptic connections in the neocortex. Science 346, 555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seibel, B.A., Dierssen, H.M., 2009. Ocean science. Animal function at the heart (and gut) of oceanography. Science 323, 343–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Manabe, M., Barrett, P.M., Isaji, S., 2000. Palaeontology. A refugium for relics? Nature 404, 953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dello Ioio, R., Nakamura, K., Moubayidin, L., Perilli, S., Taniguchi, M., Morita, M.T., Aoyama, T., Costantino, P., Sabatini, S., 2008. A genetic framework for the control of cell division and differentiation in the root meristem. Science 322, 1380–1384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habib, M.A.R., 2010. Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Nathan, S.D., 2016. Guide to Clinical Management of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, J.S., Lee, J.C., 2007. Context Awareness by Case-Based Reasoning in a Music Recommendation System, in: Ichikawa, H., Cho, W.-D., Satoh, I., Youn, H.Y. (Eds.), Ubiquitous Computing Systems: 4th International Symposium, UCS 2007, Tokyo, Japan, November 25-28, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Expression Patterns.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Crop Records Reveal Madagascar And Comoros Were Settled From Southeast Asia [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Transition Series: Information Technology Issues (No. OCG-89-6TR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexandre, K.M., 2009. Identifying mechanisms regulating Wnt signaling during postembryonic development (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. Venezuela Cancels Another Dudamel Tour. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ko, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ko, 2014; Seibel and Dierssen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seibel and Dierssen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Dello Ioio et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Expression Patterns
AbbreviationGene Expr. Patterns
ISSN (print)1567-133X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

Other styles