How to format your references using the Gene Expression Patterns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gene Expression Patterns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, A., 2000. EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY: Getting More Out of Space. Science 290, 1287b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fialko, Y., Pearse, J., 2012. Sombrero uplift above the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body: evidence of a ballooning mid-crustal diapir. Science 338, 250–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bernasconi, N.L., Traggiai, E., Lanzavecchia, A., 2002. Maintenance of serological memory by polyclonal activation of human memory B cells. Science 298, 2199–2202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Botella, H., Blom, H., Dorka, M., Ahlberg, P.E., Janvier, P., 2007. Jaws and teeth of the earliest bony fishes. Nature 448, 583–586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fullman, S.H., 2010. Increasing Alpha with Options. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lakshminarayanan, V., Bhattacharya, I. (Eds.), 2015. Advances in Optical Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the First International Conference, IEM OPTRONIX 2014, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Balogh, K., 2015. F-LTAG Semantics for Issues Around Focusing, in: Aher, M., Hole, D., Jeřábek, E., Kupke, C. (Eds.), Logic, Language, and Computation: 10th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2013, Gudauri, Georgia, September 23-27, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gene Expression Patterns.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Why Has Mark Zuckerberg Put Tape Over His Camera? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve the Accountability and Transparency of High-Cost Program Funding (No. GAO-14-587). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayres, R., 2017. Optimization of a Novel Oxy-Michael Ugi-Smiles Reaction (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of the New York Times. New York Times C36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Fialko and Pearse, 2012; Watson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fialko and Pearse, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Botella et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGene Expression Patterns
AbbreviationGene Expr. Patterns
ISSN (print)1567-133X
ScopeDevelopmental Biology
Molecular Biology

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