How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bortman, H. (2000). Requiem for an observatory. Nature, 405(6786), 504–506.
A journal article with 2 authors
Larson, H. J., & Ghinai, I. (2011). Lessons from polio eradication. Nature, 473(7348), 446–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dian, B. C., Clarkson, J. R., & Zwier, T. S. (2004). Direct measurement of energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661), 1169–1173.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dial, O. E., Ashoori, R. C., Pfeiffer, L. N., & West, K. W. (2007). High-resolution spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron systems. Nature, 448(7150), 176–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corley, R. H. V., & Tinker, P. B. (2015). The Oil Palm. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Valla, G. (2010). Hilbert Functions of Filtered Modules (M. E. Rossi, Ed.; Vol. 9). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, W. A., & Karram, M. M. (2006). Prolapse. In P. E. Zimmern, P. A. Norton, F. Haab, & C. C. R. Chapple (Eds.), Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse (pp. 35–54). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 3). The Netherlands’ Railway Aims To Run On 100% Wind Power By 2018. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Earth Observing System: Broader Involvement of the EOSDIS User Community Is Needed (IMTEC-92-40). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kinney, C. E. (2009). Realtime controller tuning for periodic disturbance rejection with application to active noise control [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, May 19). One Subway Stop Changes the Rent. New York Times, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bortman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bortman, 2000; Larson & Ghinai, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Larson & Ghinai, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Dian et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dial et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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