How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brower, V. (2011). Epigenetics: Unravelling the cancer code. Nature, 471(7339), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Annas, G. J., & Elias, S. (2004). Politics, morals and embryos. Nature, 431(7004), 19–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Delamarre, L., Mellman, I., & Yadav, M. (2015). Cancer immunotherapy. Neo approaches to cancer vaccines. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6236), 760–761.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Calderaro, A., Arcangeletti, M.-C., Rodighiero, I., Buttrini, M., Gorrini, C., Motta, F., Germini, D., Medici, M.-C., Chezzi, C., & De Conto, F. (2014). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry applied to virus identification. Scientific Reports, 4, 6803.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, M. J. (2011). Porous Silicon in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Charlés, L. L., & Samarasinghe, G. (Eds.). (2016). Family Therapy in Global Humanitarian Contexts: Voices and Issues from the Field. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Brox, P., Baturone, I., & Sánchez-Solano, S. (2010). Fuzzy Motion-Adaptive De-Interlacing with Edge-Adaptive Spatial Interpolation. In I. Baturone & S. Sánchez-Solano (Eds.), Fuzzy Logic-Based Algorithms for Video De-Interlacing (pp. 105–142). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 10). Elon Musk Wants To Fix South Australia’s Energy Crisis In Just 100 Days. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Performance Management in Higher Education (No. 094664). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satam, G. C. (2010). The mechanical engineering approach for three dimensional modeling procedure and measurements of the heart anatomy [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gavin, J. (2017, July 20). The Divine One. New York Times, BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brower, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Annas & Elias, 2004; Brower, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Annas & Elias, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Delamarre et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Calderaro et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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