How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cully, M. (2013). Drug development: Chemical brace. Nature, 503(7475), S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mayr, G., & Manegold, A. (2013). Can ovarian follicles fossilize? Nature, 499(7457), E1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halter, W. E., Pettke, T., & Heinrich, C. A. (2002). The origin of Cu/Au ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1844–1846.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamamoto, Y., Fukushima, T., Suna, Y., Ishii, N., Saeki, A., Seki, S., Tagawa, S., Taniguchi, M., Kawai, T., & Aida, T. (2006). Photoconductive coaxial nanotubes of molecularly connected electron donor and acceptor layers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5806), 1761–1764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago, C. (2015). Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Safavi-Naini, R., & Canetti, R. (Eds.). (2012). Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2012: 32nd Annual Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 19-23, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7417). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartlett, L., & Mogusu, E. (2013). Teachers’ Understandings And Implementation Of Learner-Centered Pedagogy. In L. Bartlett (Ed.), Teaching in Tension: International Pedagogies, National Policies, and Teachers’ Practices in Tanzania (pp. 61–74). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 11). Printable Solar Cells One Step Closer To Reaching The Shelves. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Aviation Safety: Information on the Safety Effects of Modifying the Age Standard for Commercial Pilots (GAO-10-107R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gamez, T. E. (2012). Preventing child maltreatment among children with non-resident fathers: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, April 24). Court Weighs Rights of Passengers When Police Stop Cars. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cully, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cully, 2013; Mayr & Manegold, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mayr & Manegold, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Halter et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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