How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poffenroth, M. (2015). My liberation through science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6217), 98.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, A. G., & Goessling, W. (2014). Regenerative biology: Take the brakes off for liver repair. Nature, 506(7488), 299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Locher, K. P., Bass, R. B., & Rees, D. C. (2003). Structural biology. Breaching the barrier. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 603–604.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, A., Mu, H., Zhang, W., Cui, G., Zhu, J., & Duan, J. (2013). Chitosan coupling makes microbial biofilms susceptible to antibiotics. Scientific Reports, 3, 3364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey, S. B. (2010). The Profitable Hobby Farm. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Rogers, R. (2005). Fundamentals of Forensic Practice: Mental Health and Criminal Law (D. W. Shuman, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Salvadori, P. A. (2013). I radiofarmaci e la farmacopea. In G. Lucignani (Ed.), Sperimentazione e registrazione dei radiofarmaci: Normative e procedure (pp. 47–55). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, October 10). Tick-Induced Meat Allergy Reportedly On The Rise. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Earth Observing System: Concerns Over NASA’s Basic Research Funding Strategy (No. NSIAD-96-97). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, D. L. (2012). The Challenge Program: A quantitative analysis of strategies designed to eliminate the achievement gap (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, March 16). Previous Success for Witness in Mets Case. New York Times, p. B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poffenroth, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cox & Goessling, 2014; Poffenroth, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox & Goessling, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Locher, Bass, & Rees, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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