How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haszeldine, R. S. (2009). Carbon capture and storage: how green can black be? Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1647–1652.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kalinin, S. V., & Spaldin, N. A. (2013). Materials science. Functional ion defects in transition metal oxides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6148), 858–859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Veizer, J., Godderis, Y., & François, L. M. (2000). Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature, 408(6813), 698–701.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsao, D. Y., Freiwald, W. A., Tootell, R. B. H., & Livingstone, M. S. (2006). A cortical region consisting entirely of face-selective cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761), 670–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jazar, R. N. (2011). Advanced Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scuderi, N., & Toth, B. A. (Eds.). (2016). International Textbook of Aesthetic Surgery (1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Islam, T., & Yamaguchi, Y. (2009). Some Computational Predictions on the Possibilities of Three-Dimensional Properties of Grid Cells in Entorhinal Cortex. In C. S. Leung, M. Lee, & J. H. Chan (Eds.), Neural Information Processing: 16th International Conference, ICONIP 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 26–33). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 27). Self-Assembling Molecules Trap Cancer Cells In Deadly Carbohydrate Web. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Earth Observing System: Cost and Research Issues (T-NSIAD-96-116). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galyer, D. L. (2019). The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leguizamo, J. (2016, October 21). ‘Too Bad You’re Latin.’ New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haszeldine, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Haszeldine, 2009; Kalinin & Spaldin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kalinin & Spaldin, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Veizer et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsao et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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