How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Another British invasion? Nature, 420(6916), 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro, B., & Hofreiter, M. (2014). A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6169), 1236573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, B., Munroe, P., & Wang, G. (2013). Ruthenium nanocrystals as cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen batteries with a superior performance. Scientific Reports, 3, 2247.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, C., Rajfur, Z., Borchers, C., Schaller, M. D., & Jacobson, K. (2003). JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration. Nature, 424(6945), 219–223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick, M. R. (2011). The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Misra, A. A. (2015). Tectonic Inheritance in Continental Rifts and Passive Margins (S. Mukherjee, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt, F. R., Töppe, E., Cremers, D., & Boykov, Y. (2007). Efficient Shape Matching Via Graph Cuts. In A. L. Yuille, S.-C. Zhu, D. Cremers, & Y. Wang (Eds.), Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 6th International Conference, EMMCVPR 2007, Ezhou, China, August 27-29, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 39–54). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 8). Heartwarming Footage Shows Two Captive Dolphins Being Returned To The Wild. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Federal Aviation Administration: Commercial Space Launch Industry Developments Present Multiple Challenges (GAO-15-706). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg, A. L. (2017). The Seriously Ill Patient’s Broken Care Continuum: One Community’s Action Response [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017, March 25). Bernie Wrightson, 68, a Comic Book Artist and Swamp Thing Creator. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Shapiro & Hofreiter, 2014; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro & Hofreiter, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Sun et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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