How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konecky, B. (2015). Palaeoclimate: Monsoon matters. Nature, 517(7535), 445–446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cochella, L., & Green, R. (2005). An active role for tRNA in decoding beyond codon:anticodon pairing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5725), 1178–1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stine, A. R., Huybers, P., & Fung, I. Y. (2009). Changes in the phase of the annual cycle of surface temperature. Nature, 457(7228), 435–440.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schoch, S., Deák, F., Königstorfer, A., Mozhayeva, M., Sara, Y., Südhof, T. C., & Kavalali, E. T. (2001). SNARE function analyzed in synaptobrevin/VAMP knockout mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5544), 1117–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Estopinal, S. V., & Lathrop, W. (2011). Professional Surveyors and Real Property Descriptions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Haurie, A., Muto, S., Petrosjan, L. A., & Raghavan, T. E. S. (Eds.). (2006). Advances in Dynamic Games: Applications to Economics, Management Science, Engineering, and Environmental Management (Vol. 8). Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Hens, T., & Rieger, M. O. (2016). Two-Period Model: State-Preference Approach. In M. O. Rieger (Ed.), Financial Economics: A Concise Introduction to Classical and Behavioral Finance (pp. 139–209). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, April 29). Enormous Green Meteor Caught On Camera Above California. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Federal Advisory Groups: DOT and DOE Can Take Steps to Better Assess Duplication Risk and Enhance Usefulness (GAO-12-472). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, B. A. (2012). Computer-Based Versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., & Palmer, E. (2015, November 22). Suspect in Pregnant Woman’s Death Left Cryptic Trail. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Konecky, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cochella & Green, 2005; Konecky, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cochella & Green, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Stine et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schoch et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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