How to format your references using the International Affairs Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Affairs Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg, D. S. (2010). A two-year plan for US science. Nature, 467(7317), 781–782.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaminski, T., & Heimann, M. (2001). Inverse modeling of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5541), 259.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stuphorn, V., Taylor, T. L., & Schall, J. D. (2000). Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature, 408(6814), 857–860.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Keshavmurthy, S., Fontana, S., Mezaki, T., González, L. del C., & Chen, C. A. (2014). Doors are closing on early development in corals facing climate change. Scientific Reports, 4, 5633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, K. (2008). The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Einsiedler, M. (2011). Ergodic Theory: with a view towards Number Theory. (T. Ward, Ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, P., Dong, W., & Huang, G. M. (2011). Dynamic Stability of Static Memories: Concepts and Advanced Numerical Analysis Techniques. In P. Li, L. M. Silveira, & P. Feldmann (Eds.), Simulation and Verification of Electronic and Biological Systems (pp. 95–113). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Affairs Forum.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, June 12). Scarlet Kingsnake Still Mimics Extinct Venomous Species. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). School Facilities: Profiles of School Condition by State (No. HEHS-96-148). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. (2015). Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, June 8). Bullpen Surrenders Wheeler’s Lead, but the Mets Prevail. New York Times, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg, 2010; Kaminski & Heimann, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaminski & Heimann, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Stuphorn, Taylor, & Schall, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Keshavmurthy, Fontana, Mezaki, González, & Chen, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Affairs Forum
AbbreviationInt. Aff. For.
ISSN (print)2325-8020
ISSN (online)2325-8047

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