How to format your references using the European Journal of Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayer, M. L. (2006). Glutamate receptors at atomic resolution. Nature, 440(7083), 456–462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyithe, J. S. B., & Loeb, A. (2002). Magnification of light from many distant quasars by gravitational lenses. Nature, 417(6892), 923–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, C.-S., Shemorry, A., & Varshavsky, A. (2010). N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5968), 973–977.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Neijssen, J., Herberts, C., Drijfhout, J. W., Reits, E., Janssen, L., & Neefjes, J. (2005). Cross-presentation by intercellular peptide transfer through gap junctions. Nature, 434(7029), 83–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, D., & Stauffer, D. (2005). Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Barthe, G., Burdy, L., Huisman, M., Lanet, J.-L., & Muntean, T. (Eds.). (2005). Construction and Analysis of Safe, Secure, and Interoperable Smart Devices: International Workshop, CASSIS 2004, Marseille, France, March 10-14, 2004, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3362). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hartwig, G. (2007). History and Applications of Nonmetallic Materials. In K. D. Timmerhaus & R. P. Reed (Eds.), Cryogenic Engineering (pp. 84–101). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 5). This Is Why You Should Never Wash Your Contact Lenses With Tap Water. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Educational Programs in the Public Schools of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (No. 092764). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, L. I. (2017). Empowering African American Youth Who Live in Foster Care: A Grant Proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Yee, V. (2017, June 16). ‘Dreamers’ to Stay in U.S. for Now, but Their Long-Term Fate Is Unclear. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Mayer, 2006; Wyithe & Loeb, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyithe & Loeb, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Hwang et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Neijssen et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEur. J. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2239-5938
ISSN (online)2239-6101

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