How to format your references using the European Journal of Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dillon, N. (2003). Gene autonomy: positions, please. Nature, 425(6957), 457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farquhar, G. D., & Roderick, M. L. (2003). Atmospheric science. Pinatubo, diffuse light, and the carbon cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5615), 1997–1998.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tibi, R., Wiens, D. A., & Inoue, H. (2003). Remote triggering of deep earthquakes in the 2002 Tonga sequences. Nature, 424(6951), 921–925.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yi, N., Huang, B., Dong, L., Quan, X., Hong, F., Tao, P., Song, C., Shang, W., & Deng, T. (2014). Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface. Scientific Reports, 4, 4303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A. (2008). A Practical Guide to Reliable Finite Element Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gaïti, D. (Ed.). (2007). Network Control and Engineering for QoS, Security and Mobility, IV: Fourth IFIP International Conference on Network Control and Engineering for QoS, Security and Mobility, Lannion, France, November 14–18, 2005 (Vol. 229). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang, J. T. (2016). Gene Expression Models of Signaling Pathways. In J. Wu (Ed.), Transcriptomics and Gene Regulation (pp. 99–113). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 22). Genetically Modified Yeast Could Boost Health Benefits Of Wine And Reduce Hangovers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Bilingual Education: Information on Limited English Proficient Students (HRD-87-85BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Metcalfe, A. C. (2017). Using Evolution as a Context for Teaching the Nature of Science to Diverse Student Populations: A High School Unit of Curriculum [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2016, September 23). The Innocents of Times Square. New York Times, MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dillon, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dillon, 2003; Farquhar & Roderick, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farquhar & Roderick, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Tibi et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEur. J. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2239-5938
ISSN (online)2239-6101

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