How to format your references using the European Journal of Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hasselmo, M. E. (2008). Neuroscience. The scale of experience. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5885), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, J., & Zhao, Y. (2004). Formation of zirconium metallic glass. Nature, 430(6997), 332–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lehmann, E., Brueckner, F., & Cramer, P. (2007). Molecular basis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase II activity. Nature, 450(7168), 445–449.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X., Lu, T., Snider, R. K., & Liang, L. (2005). Sustained firing in auditory cortex evoked by preferred stimuli. Nature, 435(7040), 341–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J. R., & Durham, T. A. (2008). Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Calvary, G., Pribeanu, C., Santucci, G., & Vanderdonckt, J. (Eds.). (2007). Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces V. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Soslow, R. A., & Oliva, E. (2009). Uterine Cancer. In E. Oliva & F. Muggia (Eds.), Uterine Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (pp. 51–86). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 13). Does Global Warming Mean More Or Less Snow? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). FWS: Migratory Bird Hunting--Late Seasons and Bag Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds (No. OGC-99-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bearden, A. (2017). Exploring the Congruency between Mission and Practice in a Pre-K-12, Midwestern, Christian School (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017, June 17). Trump the Transparent. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hasselmo, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hasselmo, 2008; Zhang & Zhao, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Zhao, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Lehmann, Brueckner, & Cramer, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang, Lu, Snider, & Liang, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Sustainable Development
AbbreviationEur. J. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2239-5938
ISSN (online)2239-6101

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