How to format your references using the Internal and Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internal and Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans RL (2014) Geophysics: Making the Earth move. Nature 509:40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrott RA, Oli MK (2013) Conservation. A critical crossroad for BLM’s wild horse program. Science 341:847–848
A journal article with 3 authors
West S, Gromak N, Proudfoot NJ (2004) Human 5’ --> 3’ exonuclease Xrn2 promotes transcription termination at co-transcriptional cleavage sites. Nature 432:522–525
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tay Y, Zhang J, Thomson AM, et al (2008) MicroRNAs to Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 coding regions modulate embryonic stem cell differentiation. Nature 455:1124–1128

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan F (2013) Cognitive Therapy for Addiction. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK
An edited book
Bennemann KH, Ketterson JB (2008) Superconductivity: Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ramsbrock D, Wang X, Jiang X (2008) A First Step towards Live Botmaster Traceback. In: Lippmann R, Kirda E, Trachtenberg A (eds) Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 11th International Symposium, RAID 2008, Cambridge, MA, USA, September 15-17, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internal and Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Generate Sperm Precursors From Skin Cells Of Infertile Men. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Tax Systems Modernization: Comments on IRS’ Fiscal Year 1994 Budget Request. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lake AD (2013) Hepatic stress response mechanisms in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Mathematicians Are Hoping Calculations Add Up to the Perfect Bracket. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternal and Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationIntern. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1828-0447
ISSN (online)1970-9366
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Internal Medicine

Other styles