How to format your references using the Internal and Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internal and Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Vinge JD (2000) Murphy’s cat. Nature 408:649
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Martin CH, Wainwright PC (2013) Multiple fitness peaks on the adaptive landscape drive adaptive radiation in the wild. Science 339:208–211
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chandra FA, Buzi G, Doyle JC (2011) Glycolytic oscillations and limits on robust efficiency. Science 333:187–192
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zhang Y, Fu F, Wu T, et al (2013) A tale of two contribution mechanisms for nonlinear public goods. Sci Rep 3:2021

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
O’Kelly M, Ratitch B (2014) Clinical Trials with Missing Data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Milano G, Grasso A (2014) Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Newsholme P, Keane K, Gaudel C, McClenaghan N (2015) (Dys)Regulation of Insulin Secretion by Macronutrients. In: Islam MS (ed) Islets of Langerhans. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 129–156

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internal and Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R (2016) World’s First Robot Lawyer Helps 160,000 People Void Their Parking Tickets. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/worlds-first-robot-lawyer-helps-160000-people-void-their-parking-tickets/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1996) Telecommunications: Competition Issues in International Satellite Communications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wang B (2017) An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K (2011) A Slice of Virtue. New York Times NJ10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternal and Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationIntern. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1828-0447
ISSN (online)1970-9366
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Internal Medicine

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