How to format your references using the Internal and Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internal and Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bradford MA (2014) Ecology: Good dirt with good friends. Nature 505:486–487
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Newman DK, Banfield JF (2002) Geomicrobiology: how molecular-scale interactions underpin biogeochemical systems. Science 296:1071–1077
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Gestwicki JE, Crabtree GR, Graef IA (2004) Harnessing chaperones to generate small-molecule inhibitors of amyloid beta aggregation. Science 306:865–869
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Cohen E, Bieschke J, Perciavalle RM, et al (2006) Opposing activities protect against age-onset proteotoxicity. Science 313:1604–1610

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Xiong K (2014) Resource Optimization and Security for Cloud Services. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, USA
An edited book
1.
Shan M-C, Dayal U, Hsu M (2005) Technologies for E-Services: 5th International Workshop, TES 2004, Toronto, Canada, August 29-30, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lun DS, Ho T, Ratnakar N, et al (2006) Network Coding in Wireless Networks. In: Fitzek FHP, Katz MD (eds) Cooperation in Wireless Networks: Principles and Applications: Real Egoistic Behavior is to Cooperate! Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 127–161

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internal and Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) What Are The Odds Of An Alien Megastructure Blocking Light From A Distant Star? In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/what-are-odds-alien-megastructure-blocking-light-distant-star/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1988) Aviation Safety: Enhanced Requirements Can Improve Commuter Pilot Training. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Runyan TE (2017) A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Seltzer M (2017) Doctor in the House. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternal and Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationIntern. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1828-0447
ISSN (online)1970-9366
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Internal Medicine

Other styles