How to format your references using the Internal and Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internal and Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis R (2008) A career at the museum. Nature 451:218
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauch SL, Carlezon WA Jr (2013) Neuroscience. Illuminating the neural circuitry of compulsive behaviors. Science 340:1174–1175
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiessling W, Simpson C, Foote M (2010) Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Science 327:196–198
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu H-C, Mauit O, Coileáin CÓ, et al (2014) Magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial thin film MgFe2O4 grown on MgO (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. Sci Rep 4:7012

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen N (2010) Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
van de Kelft E (2016) Surgery of the Spine and Spinal Cord: A Neurosurgical Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
D’Cruz LM, Klein L (2008) IL-2 Signaling and CD4+ CD25+ Regulatory T Cells. In: Jiang S (ed) Regulatory T Cells and Clinical Application. Springer US, New York, NY, pp 77–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internal and Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) China, U.S. and Brazil Make New Climate Pledges. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Minimum Requirements Are Needed for Colleges and Universities To Justify Research Equipment Purchases. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright EA (2012) Assessing Leadership Behaviors and Demographic Characteristics of Project Managers Associated Through LinkedIn. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D (2003) It’s 8 O’Clock. Time for the Penguin to Explode. New York Times 742

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternal and Emergency Medicine
AbbreviationIntern. Emerg. Med.
ISSN (print)1828-0447
ISSN (online)1970-9366
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Internal Medicine

Other styles