How to format your references using the Intercultural Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intercultural Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, Wendy L. 2011. “Biochemistry: Life Imitates Art.” Nature 473 (7345): 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferraro, Paul J., and Agnes Kiss. 2002. “Ecology. Direct Payments to Conserve Biodiversity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5599): 1718–1719.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudley, Andrew T., María A. Ros, and Clifford J. Tabin. 2002. “A Re-Examination of Proximodistal Patterning during Vertebrate Limb Development.” Nature 418 (6897): 539–544.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Franzese, G., G. Malescio, A. Skibinsky, S. V. Buldyrev, and H. E. Stanley. 2001. “Generic Mechanism for Generating a Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition.” Nature 409 (6821): 692–695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, Bruce R. 2009. Fundraising Law Made Easy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lirkov, Ivan, Svetozar Margenov, and Jerzy Waśniewski, eds. 2006. Large-Scale Scientific Computing: 5th International Conference, LSSC 2005, Sozopol, Bulgaria, June 6-10, 2005. Revised Papers. Vol. 3743. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dawson, C. W. 2008. “Neural Network Solutions to Flood Estimation at Ungauged Sites.” In Practical Hydroinformatics: Computational Intelligence and Technological Developments in Water Applications, edited by Robert J. Abrahart, Linda M. See, and Dimitri P. Solomatine, 49–57. Water Science and Technology Library. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intercultural Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Researchers Find Earliest Example Of Reproduction In A Complex Organism.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Commercial Spectrum: Plans and Actions to Meet Future Needs, Including Continued Use of Auctions. GAO-12-118. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakano, Ana M. 2012. “Community College Swirlers and the Transfer Function.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2006. “One Pilgrim and His Very Personal Hymnal.” New York Times, April 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kelly 2011; Ferraro and Kiss 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferraro and Kiss 2002)
  • Three authors: (Dudley, Ros, and Tabin 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Franzese et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntercultural Education
ISSN (print)1467-5986
ISSN (online)1469-8439
Cultural Studies

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