How to format your references using the Intercultural Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intercultural Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franson, James D. 2010. “Physics. Pairs Rule Quantum Interference.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5990): 396–397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye, Chris, and Nigel Gay. 2003. “Epidemiology. Modeling the SARS Epidemic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5627): 1884–1885.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oye, Kenneth A., J. Chappell H. Lawson, and Tania Bubela. 2015. “Drugs: Regulate ‘home-Brew’ Opiates.” Nature 521 (7552): 281–283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Croft, Martin T., Andrew D. Lawrence, Evelyne Raux-Deery, Martin J. Warren, and Alison G. Smith. 2005. “Algae Acquire Vitamin B12 through a Symbiotic Relationship with Bacteria.” Nature 438 (7064): 90–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelby, Amanda M., and Carolyn M. McKune. 2014. Small Animal Anesthesia Techniques. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Itenberg, Illia. 2009. Tropical Algebraic Geometry. Edited by Grigory Mikhalkin and Eugenii Shustin. Vol. 35. Oberwolfach Seminars. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Rozario, Roy, Evan Ortlieb, and Jennifer Rennie. 2016. “Interactivity and Mobile Technologies: An Activity Theory Perspective.” In Mobile Learning Design: Theories and Application, edited by Daniel Churchill, Jie Lu, Thomas K. F. Chiu, and Bob Fox, 63–82. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intercultural Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Huge Trial Shows Early HIV Treatment Dramatically Improves Patient Outcome.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Electronic Health Records: HHS Strategy to Address Information Exchange Challenges Lacks Specific Prioritized Actions and Milestones. GAO-14-242. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duley, Larenda A. 2012. “A Qualitative Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Women Remaining in Abusive Relationships.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2011. “The Burden Of Pensions On States.” New York Times, March 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franson 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Franson 2010; Dye and Gay 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Gay 2003)
  • Three authors: (Oye, Lawson, and Bubela 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Croft et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntercultural Education
ISSN (print)1467-5986
ISSN (online)1469-8439
Cultural Studies

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