How to format your references using the Intercultural Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intercultural Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G. 2000. “ASTRONOMY: Neighborhood Gamma Ray Burst Boosts Theory.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 289 (5476): 29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore, Susan E., and Claudia I. Czimczik. 2008. “Geology. An Uncertain Future for Soil Carbon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5895): 1455–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, Ted, Michael R. Waters, and Margarita Dikova. 2003. “The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5632): 501–505.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Floyd, J. S., J. C. Mutter, A. M. Goodliffe, and B. Taylor. 2001. “Evidence for Fault Weakness and Fluid Flow within an Active Low-Angle Normal Fault.” Nature 411 (6839): 779–783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seabridge, Allan, and Shirley Morgan. 2010. Air Travel and Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schwartz, Adam J., Mukul Kumar, Brent L. Adams, and David P. Field, eds. 2009. Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Materials Science. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Lafrenz, Karsten. 2006. “From Crisis to Value Increase: How Companies Can Attain High Profits During a Restructuring Phase.” In Corporate Restructuring: Finance in Times of Crisis, edited by Michael Blatz, Karl-J Kraus, and Sascha Haghani, 43–53. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intercultural Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Dancing Planets Reveal How Gas Giants Migrate Towards Stars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Need for Active Alcohol Public Education Program. 088681. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nye, Kelly Marie. 2010. “Crème de Pêche.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, Bill, and Mary M. Chapman. 2015. “U.A.W. Plans to Re-Engage Fiat Chrysler.” New York Times, October 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schilling 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schilling 2000; Trumbore and Czimczik 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008)
  • Three authors: (Goebel, Waters, and Dikova 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Floyd et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntercultural Education
ISSN (print)1467-5986
ISSN (online)1469-8439
Cultural Studies

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