How to format your references using the Intercultural Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intercultural Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Artsimovitch, Irina. 2014. “Molecular Biology: The Tug of DNA Repair.” Nature 505 (7483): 298–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, G. M., and J. Oshima. 2000. “Lessons from Human Progeroid Syndromes.” Nature 408 (6809): 263–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholz, Henrike, Mirjam Franz, and Ulrike Heberlein. 2005. “The Hangover Gene Defines a Stress Pathway Required for Ethanol Tolerance Development.” Nature 436 (7052): 845–847.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kaur, Charanpreet, Anchal Vishnoi, Thilini Udayangani Ariyadasa, Alok Bhattacharya, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, and Sudhir Kumar Sopory. 2013. “Episodes of Horizontal Gene-Transfer and Gene-Fusion Led to Co-Existence of Different Metal-Ion Specific Glyoxalase I.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3076.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohan, Ned. 2014. Advanced Electric Drives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Matthews, Robert W. 2010. Insect Behavior: 2nd Edition. Edited by Janice R. Matthews. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Xuefei, Weijiang Liu, Zhiyang Li, and Wenwen Gao. 2014. “A Continuous Virtual Vector-Based Algorithm for Measuring Cardinality Distribution.” In Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part II, edited by Xian-He Sun, Wenyu Qu, Ivan Stojmenovic, Wanlei Zhou, Zhiyang Li, Hua Guo, Geyong Min, Tingting Yang, Yulei Wu, and Lei Liu, 43–53. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intercultural Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Mouse vs. Scorpion- Who Do You Think Wins?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Consumers’ Location Data: Companies Take Steps to Protect Privacy, but Practices Are Inconsistent, and Risks May Not Be Clear to Consumers. GAO-14-649T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slotnick, Adam. 2012. “Status Symbols in Triathlete Culture.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. “A Cosmetics Company Bets on Underdogs.” New York Times, September 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Artsimovitch 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Artsimovitch 2014; Martin and Oshima 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Oshima 2000)
  • Three authors: (Scholz, Franz, and Heberlein 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kaur et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntercultural Education
ISSN (print)1467-5986
ISSN (online)1469-8439
Cultural Studies

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