How to format your references using the Intercultural Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intercultural Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Normile, D. 2000. “Strange Behavior at One Dimension.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5496): 1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson, Stephen J., and John Travis. 2007. “Testing Our Defenses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5838): 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zanardi, Ilaria, Giovanni Zifarelli, and Michael Pusch. 2013. “An Optical Assay of the Transport Activity of ClC-7.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1231.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sánchez-Lavega, A., S. Pérez-Hoyos, J. F. Rojas, R. Hueso, and R. G. French. 2003. “A Strong Decrease in Saturn’s Equatorial Jet at Cloud Level.” Nature 423 (6940): 623–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouchet, Olivier. 2012. Wireless Optical Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Klein, Gordon L., ed. 2014. Bone Drugs in Pediatrics: Efficacy and Challenges. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodwin, Graham C., and Mauricio G. Cea. 2012. “Application of Minimum Distortion Filtering to Identification of Linear Systems Having Non-Uniform Sampling Period.” In System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design, edited by Liuping Wang and Hugues Garnier, 97–114. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intercultural Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Nature Can’t Pay Its Own Way – So Let’s Take The Market Out Of Conservation.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Legislative and Regulatory Actions Needed To Deal With a Changing Domestic Telecommunications Industry. CED-81-136. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Soo Bum. 2009. “Localizing the Effects of Link Flooding Attacks in the Internet.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2005. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Submarine Appeal In European Court.” New York Times, January 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Normile 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Normile 2000; Simpson and Travis 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simpson and Travis 2007)
  • Three authors: (Zanardi, Zifarelli, and Pusch 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sánchez-Lavega et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntercultural Education
ISSN (print)1467-5986
ISSN (online)1469-8439
Cultural Studies

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