How to format your references using the Interchange citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interchange. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gangopadhyay, S. S. (2013). Systemic administration of follistatin288 increases muscle mass and reduces fat accumulation in mice. Scientific reports, 3, 2441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mangalam, M., & Karve, S. M. (2015). ANIMAL COGNITION. Comment on “Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans’ mental number line.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6242), 1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velicer, G. J., Kroos, L., & Lenski, R. E. (2000). Developmental cheating in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature, 404(6778), 598–601.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grove, T. L., Till, C. B., Lev, E., Chatterjee, N., & Médard, E. (2009). Kinematic variables and water transport control the formation and location of arc volcanoes. Nature, 459(7247), 694–697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish, R. P., & Greene, S. A. (2005). Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Aman, B. (2011). Mobility in Process Calculi and Natural Computing. (G. Ciobanu, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Garza Castañón, L. E., Guillén, D. R., & Morales-Menendez, R. (2011). Fault Diagnosis in Power Networks with Hybrid Bayesian Networks and Wavelets. In K. G. Mehrotra, C. K. Mohan, J. C. Oh, P. K. Varshney, & M. Ali (Eds.), Modern Approaches in Applied Intelligence: 24th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, IEA/AIE 2011, Syracuse, NY, USA, June 28 – July 1, 2011, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 29–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interchange.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 18). Magic Mushrooms Shown To Ease Severe Depression In Groundbreaking Study. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Competition: Proposed Domestic Airline Alliances Raise Serious Issues (No. T-RCED-98-215). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, P. (2010). Evaluation of the flicker effect as a generative strategy in enhancing computer -based instruction (CBI) of visual recognition and classification (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015, July 28). ‘Cheaters’ Give Rise to Cancer. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gangopadhyay 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gangopadhyay 2013; Mangalam and Karve 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mangalam and Karve 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Grove et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterchange
AbbreviationInterchange (Tor :, 1984)
ISSN (print)0826-4805
ISSN (online)1573-1790
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles