How to format your references using the Interchange citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interchange. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catling, D. C. (2006). Comment on “A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5757), 38; author reply 38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laurance, W. F., & Luizão, R. C. C. (2007). Driving a wedge into the Amazon. Nature, 448(7152), 409–410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sturm, M., Racine, C., & Tape, K. (2001). Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature, 411(6837), 546–547.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van de Wal, R. S. W., Boot, W., van den Broeke, M. R., Smeets, C. J. P. P., Reijmer, C. H., Donker, J. J. A., & Oerlemans, J. (2008). Large and rapid melt-induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5885), 111–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn, G., & Sansone, E. B. (2012). Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alberts, D., & Hess, L. M. (Eds.). (2014). Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention (3rd ed. 2014.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Iorio, C. T., & Carinci, F. (2013). Privacy and Health Care Information Systems: Where Is the Balance? In C. George, D. Whitehouse, & P. Duquenoy (Eds.), eHealth: Legal, Ethical and Governance Challenges (pp. 77–105). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interchange.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 17). Recording The Entire Nervous System In Real Time Will Unlock Secrets Of The Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Surface and Maritime Transportation: Developing Strategies for Enhancing Mobility: A National Challenge (No. GAO-02-775). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gnoinska, M. K. (2010). Poland and the Cold War in East and Southeast Asia, 1949-1965 (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gelles, S. M. (2016, January 3). Sweating Out a Singles Mixer From Behind a Stall. New York Times, p. ST5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catling 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Catling 2006; Laurance and Luizão 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laurance and Luizão 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (van de Wal et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterchange
AbbreviationInterchange (Tor :, 1984)
ISSN (print)0826-4805
ISSN (online)1573-1790
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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