How to format your references using the Interchange citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interchange. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K. (2014). Biology: Three known unknowns. Nature, 509(7502), S69-71.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emerson, B. C., & Kolm, N. (2005). Species diversity can drive speciation. Nature, 434(7036), 1015–1017.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström, A., Pärt, T., & Sheldon, B. C. (2000). Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort. Nature, 405(6784), 344–347.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nayak, M., Singh, D., Singh, H., Kant, R., Gupta, A., Pandey, S. S., et al. (2013). Integrated sorting, concentration and real time PCR based detection system for sensitive detection of microorganisms. Scientific reports, 3, 3266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R. L. (2005). Fundamentals of Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pieprzyk, J., Ghodosi, H., & Dawson, E. (Eds.). (2007). Information Security and Privacy: 12th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2007, Townsville, Australia, July 2-4, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4586). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciaschini, M., De Angelis, M., Monteriù, A., Pretaroli, R., Severini, F., & Socci, C. (2015). Investments and Sustainability of Public Expenditure in the Health Sector. In B. Andò, P. Siciliano, V. Marletta, & A. Monteriù (Eds.), Ambient Assisted Living: Italian Forum 2014 (pp. 35–46). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interchange.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 22). Viral DNA In Our Genomes Protects Early Embryos. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The Title I Program for the Handicapped (No. 103696). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schneider, S. Z. (2009). Mercury sources and cycling processes in the Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, July 21). Another Williams Takes His Turn. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bourzac 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac 2014; Emerson and Kolm 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emerson and Kolm 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nayak et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterchange
AbbreviationInterchange (Tor :, 1984)
ISSN (print)0826-4805
ISSN (online)1573-1790
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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