How to format your references using the Interchange citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interchange. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Serrano, M. (2011). Cancer: final act of senescence. Nature, 479(7374), 481–482.
A journal article with 2 authors
Okamoto, S., & Millis, A. J. (2004). Electronic reconstruction at an interface between a Mott insulator and a band insulator. Nature, 428(6983), 630–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helled, R., Galanti, E., & Kaspi, Y. (2015). Saturn’s fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness. Nature, 520(7546), 202–204.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, L., Bertke, M. M., Champion, M. M., Zhu, G., Huber, P. W., & Dovichi, N. J. (2014). Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development. Scientific reports, 4, 4365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, S. (2005). Cancer Diagnostics with DNA Microarrays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nitto, E. D., & Ripeanu, M. (Eds.). (2009). Service-Oriented Computing - ICSOC 2007 Workshops: ICSOC 2007, International Workshops, Vienna, Austria, September 17, 2007, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4907). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kannengiesser, T., & Gründer, K.-P. (2013). Stress and Strain Determination. In H. Czichos (Ed.), Handbook of Technical Diagnostics: Fundamentals and Application to Structures and Systems (pp. 69–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interchange.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, July 25). From Neptune’s Blue Hue To Jupiter’s Red Spot: Are The Colours Of The Planets Real? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Federal Family Education Loan Program: Statutory and Regulatory Changes Could Avert Billions in Unnecessary Federal Subsidy Payments (No. GAO-04-1070). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews, M. (2014). Health literacy competencies for health professionals: A Delphi study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2016, October 7). Gloria Steinem Never Stops. New York Times, p. MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Serrano 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Okamoto and Millis 2004; Serrano 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okamoto and Millis 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterchange
AbbreviationInterchange (Tor :, 1984)
ISSN (print)0826-4805
ISSN (online)1573-1790
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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