How to format your references using the Interchange citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interchange. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). A demanding world. Nature, 424(6944), 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huber, K. E., & Waldor, M. K. (2002). Filamentous phage integration requires the host recombinases XerC and XerD. Nature, 417(6889), 656–659.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khila, A., Abouheif, E., & Rowe, L. (2012). Function, developmental genetics, and fitness consequences of a sexually antagonistic trait. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6081), 585–589.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schultz, T., Samoylova, E., Radloff, W., Hertel, I. V., Sobolewski, A. L., & Domcke, W. (2004). Efficient deactivation of a model base pair via excited-state hydrogen transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1765–1768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J. (2010). Excel® VBA Programming For Dummies®. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Poveda, R. L. (2016). Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. (N. Gupta, Ed.) (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez, L., Rodriguez, R. M., & Herrera, F. (2015). Decision Making in Heterogeneous Context: 2-Tuple Linguistic Based Approaches. In R. M. Rodriguez & F. Herrera (Eds.), The 2-tuple Linguistic Model: Computing with Words in Decision Making (pp. 51–82). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interchange.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, June 25). Cat Takes Stand Against Mountain Lion. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Human Capital: Agencies Should More Fully Evaluate the Costs and Benefits of Executive Training (No. GAO-14-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emenyonu, N. I. (2012). Barriers to HIV care in rural Uganda (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hiltner, S., & Lehman, S. (2017, April 1). Finding an Expansive View of a Forgotten People in Niger. New York Times, p. A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Huber and Waldor 2002; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huber and Waldor 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schultz et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInterchange
AbbreviationInterchange (Tor :, 1984)
ISSN (print)0826-4805
ISSN (online)1573-1790
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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