How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodges, A. (2012). Computer science. Beyond Turing’s machines. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6078), 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schappacher, M., & Deffieux, A. (2008). Synthesis of macrocyclic copolymer brushes and their self-assembly into supramolecular tubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1512–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
Obata, Y., Kono, T., & Hatada, I. (2002). Gene silencing: maturation of mouse fetal germ cells in vitro. Nature, 418(6897), 497.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, J., Zhang, H., Meng, H., Zhu, Y., Bao, G., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., & Ma, Y. (2014). Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria. Scientific Reports, 4, 4500.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raczynski, S. (2006). Modeling and Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fleming, S. M., & Frith, C. D. (Eds.). (2014). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cales, R. (2015). Something Old & Borrowed. In B. C. Johnson & D. K. Faill (Eds.), Glee and New Directions for Social Change (pp. 69–79). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 11). One Day You May Be Able To Taste In Virtual Reality. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Social Security Administration: Subcommittee Questions Concerning Information Technology Challenges Facing the Commissioner (AIMD-98-235R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jozwiak, A. L. (2012). Social work internship stipend program: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosen, J. (2012, November 30). Who Do They Think You Are? New York Times, MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodges, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hodges, 2012; Schappacher & Deffieux, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schappacher & Deffieux, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Obata et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review
ISSN (print)0106-2301
ISSN (online)1600-0803
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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