How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J. M. (2015). The trouble with reference rot. Nature, 521(7550), 111–112.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soundararajan, V., & Aravamudan, M. (2014). Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy. Scientific Reports, 4, 7294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gans, J., Wolinsky, M., & Dunbar, J. (2005). Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5739), 1387–1390.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nieuwenhuis, J., Adamopoulos, A., Bleijerveld, O. B., Mazouzi, A., Stickel, E., Celie, P., Altelaar, M., Knipscheer, P., Perrakis, A., Blomen, V. A., & Brummelkamp, T. R. (2017). Vasohibins encode tubulin detyrosinating activity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6369), 1453–1456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hinkelmann, K., & Kempthorne, O. (2005). Design and Analysis of Experiments: Advanced Experimental Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pavlou, G., Ahmed, T., & Dagiuklas, T. (Eds.). (2008). Management of Converged Multimedia Networks and Services: 11th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2008, Samos Island, Greece, September 22-26, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5274). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, T., & Feng, J. (2013). Algorithms in Computational Biology. In R. Jiang, X. Zhang, & M. Q. Zhang (Eds.), Basics of Bioinformatics: Lecture Notes of the Graduate Summer School on Bioinformatics of China (pp. 151–161). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 1). Satellite Captures Image Of “Gateway To Hell” Volcano Spewing Lava. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Environmental Satellites: Launch Delayed; NOAA Faces Key Decisions on Timing of Future Satellites (GAO-16-143T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powers, D. L. (2010). Teachers’ perceptions of the effects of No Child Left Behind on classroom instruction: A cross case analysis applying Dewey’s theory of instructional methods [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, January 14). For 239th-Ranked Player, Faith in Qualifying Pays Off. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perkel, 2015; Soundararajan & Aravamudan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soundararajan & Aravamudan, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Gans et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review
ISSN (print)0106-2301
ISSN (online)1600-0803
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

Other styles