How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moritz, M. A. (2012). Wildfires ignite debate on global warming. Nature, 487(7407), 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Z., & Menees, T. M. (2004). RNA branching and debranching in the yeast retrovirus-like element Ty1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 240–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas, W., Shepard, B. D., & Gilmore, M. S. (2002). Two-component regulator of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin responds to quorum-sensing autoinduction. Nature, 415(6867), 84–87.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wee, F. H., Malek, F., Al-Amani, A. U., & Ghani, F. (2014). Effect of two different superstrate layers on bismuth titanate (BiT) array antennas. Scientific Reports, 4, 3709.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M. A. (2005). Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lämmel, R., Saraiva, J., & Visser, J. (Eds.). (2013). Generative and Transformational Techniques in Software Engineering IV: International Summer School, GTTSE 2011, Braga, Portugal, July 3-9, 2011. Revised Papers (Vol. 7680). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cypriani, M., Canalda, P., & Spies, F. (2012). OwlPS: A Self-calibrated Fingerprint-Based Wi-Fi Positioning System. In S. Chessa & S. Knauth (Eds.), Evaluating AAL Systems Through Competitive Benchmarking. Indoor Localization and Tracking: International Competition, EvAAL 2011, Competition in Valencia, Spain, July 25-29, 2011, and Final Workshop in Lecce, Italy, September 26, 2011. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 36–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, November 2). Study Claims Antarctic Ice Is Growing, But Net Gain Will Reverse In Decades. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (AA-96-29(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher, A.-C. (2009). Exceptionality and parent -professional conflict: Causes, prevention and resolution [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, April 20). Adjudging a Moral Harm To Women From Abortions. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moritz, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng & Menees, 2004; Moritz, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng & Menees, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Haas et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review
ISSN (print)0106-2301
ISSN (online)1600-0803
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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