How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walt, D. R. (2005). Chemistry. Miniature analytical methods for medical diagnostics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5719), 217–219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicer, G. J., & Yu, Y.-T. N. (2003). Evolution of novel cooperative swarming in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature, 425(6953), 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Corominas-Murtra, B., Fortuny, J., & Solé, R. V. (2014). Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication. Scientific Reports, 4, 4587.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Efthimiopoulos, I., Zhang, J., Kucway, M., Park, C., Ewing, R. C., & Wang, Y. (2013). Sb₂Se₃ under pressure. Scientific Reports, 3, 2665.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ekenna, O. (2016). Cases in Clinical Infectious Disease Practice: Obtaining a good history from the patient remains the cornerstone of an accurate clinical diagnosis: Lessons learned in many years of clinical practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Faller, R., Longo, M. L., Risbud, S. H., & Jue, T. (Eds.). (2009). Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life (1st ed.). Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Arthurs, O. J., & Sebire, N. J. (2015). Perinatal Imaging. In T. Y. Khong & R. D. G. Malcomson (Eds.), Keeling’s Fetal and Neonatal Pathology (pp. 123–140). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 4). Study Sheds Light On Violent Asteroid Crash That Caused Mysterious ‘Crater Rings’ On The Moon. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Department of Education: Monitoring of State Formula Grants by Office of Special Education Programs (HRD-91-91FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gross, J. (2010). High-performance dram system design constraints and considerations [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M., & Vlasic, B. (2012, July 31). Strong Domestic Sales Help Lift Chrysler’s Results. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walt, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Velicer & Yu, 2003; Walt, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Velicer & Yu, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Corominas-Murtra et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Efthimiopoulos et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review
ISSN (print)0106-2301
ISSN (online)1600-0803
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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