How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine Experimental citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holland GJ (2009) Oceans. Predicting El Nino’s Impacts. Science 325:47
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottfried K, Salpeter EE (2005) Obituary: Hans A. Bethe (1906-2005). Nature 434:970–971
A journal article with 3 authors
Huber GW, Shabaker JW, Dumesic JA (2003) Raney Ni-Sn catalyst for H2 production from biomass-derived hydrocarbons. Science 300:2075–2077
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Grima B, Lamouroux A, Chélot E, et al (2002) The F-box protein slimb controls the levels of clock proteins period and timeless. Nature 420:178–182

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg MA, Froum SJ (2012) The Dentist’s Drug and Prescription Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Fernandes GW (2016) Ecology and Conservation of Mountaintop grasslands in Brazil. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hongguang Z, Minxuan Z (2016) A Novel L1 Cache Based on Volatile STT-RAM. In: Xu W, Xiao L, Li J, et al (eds) Computer Engineering and Technology: 20th CCF Conference, NCCET 2016, Xi’an, China, August 10-12, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Singapore, pp 32–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Measles Denier Forced To Pay €100,000 To Doctor Who Proved Measles Is A Virus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Children’s Issues: A Decade of GAO Reports and Recent Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mier LM (2012) Monitoring Electron Transfer Reactions using Ultrafast UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) U.S. Olympic Team Selected. New York Times D7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med. Exp.
ISSN (online)2197-425X

Other styles