How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine Experimental citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Munk W (2003) Ocean science. Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science 300:2041–2043
A journal article with 2 authors
Apps R, Carrington M (2013) Response to Comment on “Influence of HLA-C expression level on HIV control.” Science 341:1175
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki T, Yamamoto Y, Koashi M (2014) Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance. Nature 509:475–478
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhang H, Yin R-S, Feng X-B, et al (2013) Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures. Sci Rep 3:3322

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke B, Seidenberg R, Althoff MP (2005) UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Garrigue J (2014) Programming Languages and Systems: 12th Asian Symposium, APLAS 2014, Singapore, Singapore, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Revaud J, Lavoue G, Ariki Y, Baskurt A (2011) Task-Specific Salience for Object Recognition. In: Kwaśnicka H, Jain LC (eds) Innovations in Intelligent Image Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) There Might be Fewer Galaxies out in the Universe Than Expected. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, Version 1.0 (Extended by GAO-03-584G). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chitakasempornkul K (2012) Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1994) IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY. New York Times 656

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med. Exp.
ISSN (online)2197-425X

Other styles