How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine Experimental citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price C (2000) Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapour. Nature 406:290–293
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser A, Bergantz GW (2011) A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature 471:212–215
A journal article with 3 authors
Moynier F, Yin Q-Z, Schauble E (2011) Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science 331:1417–1420
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cha JN, Stucky GD, Morse DE, Deming TJ (2000) Biomimetic synthesis of ordered silica structures mediated by block copolypeptides. Nature 403:289–292

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zonnenshain A, Stauber S (2015) Managing and Engineering Complex Technological Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Cheng P-J, Kan M-Y, Lam W, Nakov P (2010) Information Retrieval Technology: 6th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2010, Taipei, Taiwan, December 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Davies WR, Patterson T, Redwood SR (2015) Laser Revascularisation in Saphenous Vein Grafts. In: Topaz O (ed) Lasers in Cardiovascular Interventions. Springer, London, pp 69–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Great Barrier Reef Under Threat Of Being Listed A “World Heritage Site In Danger.” In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security are Under Way, but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savvas C (2010) Hydroclimate variability and landuse effects on nutrient export from watersheds in the mid-Atlantic United States. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2014) Tatiana Samoilova, 80, Soviet Movie Star. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med. Exp.
ISSN (online)2197-425X

Other styles