How to format your references using the Intensive Care Medicine Experimental citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh C (2001) Enabling the chemistry of life. Nature 409:226–231
A journal article with 2 authors
Price WN 2nd, Rai AK (2015) Drug Development. Are trade secrets delaying biosimilars? Science 348:188–189
A journal article with 3 authors
Platt T, Fuentes-Yaco C, Frank KT (2003) Marine ecology: Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Nature 423:398–399
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stoykovich MP, Müller M, Kim SO, et al (2005) Directed assembly of block copolymer blends into nonregular device-oriented structures. Science 308:1442–1446

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopp V (2000) Grundlagen der Life Sciences. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Anastasescu C (2016) 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Koranyi A (2011) Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions on Bounded Symmetric Domains. In: Vesentini E (ed) Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 125–197

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Legacy Of John Nash And His Equilibrium Theory. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Research and Development Programs With Regard to Short-Term Weather Phenomena. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burugupalli RT (2017) 2x1 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Parallel Cancellation Scheme with Viterbi Decoding. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman PS, Kanter J (2016) Globalization Grinds to a Halt. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntensive Care Medicine Experimental
AbbreviationIntensive Care Med. Exp.
ISSN (online)2197-425X

Other styles