How to format your references using the International Journal of Solids and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Solids and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P., 2002. Statistics: the physics of society. Nature 415, 371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida, S., Hunt, T., 2007. Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature 449, 336–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng, Y.-N., Wu, X.-C., Ji, Q., 2004. Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young. Nature 432, 383–386.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deng, Y., Guo, X., Ferguson, D.O., Chang, S., 2009. Multiple roles for MRE11 at uncapped telomeres. Nature 460, 914–918.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M., 2013. Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Mutondo, J., 2016. Water Governance Decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Between Myth and Reality, 1st ed. 2016. ed, SpringerBriefs in Water Science and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chandrappa, R., Das, D.B., 2012. Materials Recovery and Recycling, in: Das, D.B. (Ed.), Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice, Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 81–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Solids and Structures.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Early Ancestor’s Skull Growth “Not Human-Like” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Improvements Needed in the Department of the Interior’s Measurement of Offshore Oil for Royalty Purposes (No. RCED-84-78). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slabaugh, J.L., 2012. The Occurrence of Alternans and Arrhythmias in a Multicellular, Cardiac Preparation (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S.F., Alter, A., Howard, J.C., 2015. Friends, Fans and Now Alabama Debate the State of Harper Lee. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ball, 2002; Mochida and Hunt, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
AbbreviationInt. J. Solids Struct.
ISSN (print)0020-7683
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles