How to format your references using the International Journal of Solids and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Solids and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blackstock, J., 2012. Researchers can’t regulate climate engineering alone. Nature 486, 159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hone, J., Carpick, R.W., 2015. Friction. Slippery when dry. Science 348, 1087–1088.
A journal article with 3 authors
Herrmann, B., Thöni, C., Gächter, S., 2008. Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 319, 1362–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krumholz, A., Shcherbakova, D.M., Xia, J., Wang, L.V., Verkhusha, V.V., 2014. Multicontrast photoacoustic in vivo imaging using near-infrared fluorescent proteins. Sci. Rep. 4, 3939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ehrlich, E., Fanelli, D., 2012. The Financial Services Marketing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Michard, A., Saddiqi, O., Chalouan, A., Lamotte, D.F. de (Eds.), 2008. Continental Evolution: The Geology of Morocco: Structure, Stratigraphy, and Tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple Junction, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanić, S., Hren, D., Buzov, I., 2016. Schools, Local Communities and Communication: Above and Beyond the Stakeholders, in: Alfirević, N., Burušić, J., Pavičić, J., Relja, R. (Eds.), School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Solids and Structures.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. How Electric Fish Evolved Shocker of an Organ Six Times [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Supplemental Student Loans: Legislative Changes Have Sharply Reduced Loan Volume (No. HRD-90-149FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solorzano, E., 2014. A mindfulness-based psycho-educational group for caregivers of older adults: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2008. Imagining a Place Where Cheers Never End. New York Times CY6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blackstock, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Blackstock, 2012; Hone and Carpick, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hone and Carpick, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Krumholz et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
AbbreviationInt. J. Solids Struct.
ISSN (print)0020-7683
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics

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