How to format your references using the International Journal of Solids and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Solids and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clery, D., 2015. Space physics. LISA Pathfinder tests spacetime sensor. Science 350, 894–895.
A journal article with 2 authors
Subang, M.C., Richardson, P.M., 2009. Neuroscience. Nuclear power for axonal growth. Science 326, 238–239.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels, A., Heinecke, D., Diddams, S.A., 2009. 10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb. Science 326, 681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Engin, F., Nguyen, T., Yermalovich, A., Hotamisligil, G.S., 2014. Aberrant islet unfolded protein response in type 2 diabetes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Putt, A., 2006. Putt’s Law & the Successful Technocrat. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Asabere-Ameyaw, A., Anamuah-Mensah, J., Dei, G.S., Raheem, K. (Eds.), 2014. Indigenist African Development and Related Issues: Towards a Transdisciplinary Perspective, Anti-colonial Educational Perspectives for Transformative Change. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Falco, M., Schell, J., Witan, D., 2014. Tunnel Tail: A New Approach to Prevention, in: Schouten, B., Fedtke, S., Schijven, M., Vosmeer, M., Gekker, A. (Eds.), Games for Health 2014: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Gaming and Playful Interaction in Healthcare. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp. 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Solids and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Biggest Genome Yet Sequenced [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Finanzas del Consumidor: Factores que Afectan la Educacion Financiera de las Personas con Conocimientos Limitados del Ingles (No. GAO-10-869). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanute, P.J., 2012. What power? A mixed methods study of nonformal education teacher perceptions of social power (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Johnny Cash Has Now Become the Poet in Black. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clery, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Clery, 2015; Subang and Richardson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Subang and Richardson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Engin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
AbbreviationInt. J. Solids Struct.
ISSN (print)0020-7683
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles