How to format your references using the International Journal of Solids and Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Solids and Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gavaghan, H., 2001. Current role suggests the shape of future work opportunities. Nature 409, 963–964.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haass, C., Kahle, P.J., 2001. Neuroscience. Parkin and its substrates. Science 293, 224–225.
A journal article with 3 authors
Uz, B.M., Yoder, J.A., Osychny, V., 2001. Pumping of nutrients to ocean surface waters by the action of propagating planetary waves. Nature 409, 597–600.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Duret, L., Chureau, C., Samain, S., Weissenbach, J., Avner, P., 2006. The Xist RNA gene evolved in eutherians by pseudogenization of a protein-coding gene. Science 312, 1653–1655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruckmongathan, T.N., 2014. Addressing Techniques of Liquid Crystal Displays. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
D’Amato, M., Rioux, J.D. (Eds.), 2013. Molecular Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Angehrn, E., 2012. Verstehendes Leben, in: Breeur, R., Melle, U. (Eds.), Life, Subjectivity & Art: Essays in Honor of Rudolf Bernet, Phaenomenologica. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 123–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Solids and Structures.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Is Glass A Solid Or A Liquid? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Better Use of Information Technology Can Reduce the Burden of Federal Paperwork (No. GGD-83-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron, M., 2013. Prescripton labels: Do you know what medication you are taking? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ketcham, I.W., 1942. Feel of Child’s Hand Found Way to Restored Confidence. New York Times REVIEW OF THE WEEK EDITORIALSE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gavaghan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gavaghan, 2001; Haass and Kahle, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haass and Kahle, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Duret et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Solids and Structures
AbbreviationInt. J. Solids Struct.
ISSN (print)0020-7683
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles