How to format your references using the Chinese Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaughan DG. Oceans. How does the Antarctic ice sheet affect sea level rise? Science. 2005;308(5730):1877-1878.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthews HD, Solomon S. Atmosphere. Irreversible does not mean unavoidable. Science. 2013;340(6131):438-439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schwartz JH, Tattersall I, Chi Z. Comment on “A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo.” Science. 2014;344(6182):360.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Medaglia C, Giladi A, Stoler-Barak L, et al. Spatial reconstruction of immune niches by combining photoactivatable reporters and scRNA-seq. Science. 2017;358(6370):1622-1626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo D, Morini M, Pallavicini A. Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Buehler MJ, Ballarini R, eds. Materiomics: Multiscale Mechanics of Biological Materials and Structures. Vol 546. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Barga R, Fontama V, Tok WH. Integration with Python. In: Fontama V, Tok WH, eds. Predictive Analytics with Microsoft Azure Machine Learning. Apress; 2015:103-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Unravelling The Mysteries Of Sleep: How The Brain ‘Sees’ Dreams. IFLScience. Published August 12, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Proposal To Add Subpart to FAR]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamb BK. A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Emissions at a Roundabout and a Signalized Intersection in a Mid-Sized City. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. As Injury Carousel Spins, the Mets Keep Reeling. New York Times. July 9, 2017:SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Nursing Research
AbbreviationChin. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-7718

Other styles