How to format your references using the Chinese Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fletcher JD. Education and training technology in the military. Science. 2009;323(5910):72-75.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lehmann J, Sohi S. Comment on “Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.” Science. 2008;321(5894):1295; author reply 1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aguzzi A, Barres BA, Bennett ML. Microglia: scapegoat, saboteur, or something else? Science. 2013;339(6116):156-161.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tan W, Sun Y, Chen H, Shen S-Q. Photonic simulation of topological excitations in metamaterials. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Layer of Protection Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Xu L. Visual Quality Assessment by Machine Learning. (Lin W, Kuo C-CJ, eds.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Senk SL, Tatto MT, Reckase M, Rowley G, Peck R, Bankov K. Knowledge of Future Primary Teachers for Teaching Mathematics: An International Comparative Study. In: Blömeke S, Hsieh F-J, Kaiser G, Schmidt WH, eds. International Perspectives on Teacher Knowledge, Beliefs and Opportunities to Learn: TEDS-M Results. Advances in Mathematics Education. Springer Netherlands; 2014:61-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Nursing Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K. We Can Limit Global Warming To 1.5°C If We Do These Things In The Next Ten Years. IFLScience. Published November 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Non-U.S.-Licensed Satellites Providing Domestic and International Service in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wrobleski MM. The challenge of teen nutrition: An ecological view of socio-cognitive influences on urban, African-American adolescent diet quality. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W. Colombia Rebels End Truce After a Government Attack. New York Times. May 23, 2015:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Nursing Research
AbbreviationChin. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-7718

Other styles