How to format your references using the Chinese Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maquat LE. Molecular biology. Skiing toward nonstop mRNA decay. Science. 2002;295(5563):2221-2222.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ou X, Wu H. Impact of spin-orbit coupling on the magnetism of Sr₃MIrO₆ (M = Ni, Co). Sci Rep. 2014;4:4609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasting JF, Catling DC, Zahnle K. Atmospheric oxygenation and volcanism. Nature. 2012;487(7408):E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, et al. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock. Nature. 2002;419(6909):841-844.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy R. Dynamic Assessment, Intelligence and Measurement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Holzinger A, Röcker C, Ziefle M, eds. Smart Health: Open Problems and Future Challenges. Vol 8700. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Polzehl J, Tabelow K. Structural Adaptive Smoothing: Principles and Applications in Imaging. In: Florack L, Duits R, Jongbloed G, Lieshout M-C van, Davies L, eds. Mathematical Methods for Signal and Image Analysis and Representation. Computational Imaging and Vision. London: Springer; 2012:65-81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Robot Learns To Cook Watching YouTube Videos. IFLScience. Published January 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress of the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scott E. Effects of cultural nutritional education among Hispanic women with diabetes. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. An Old Friend Returns, Herbs and Fruit In Hand. New York Times. July 20, 2003:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Nursing Research
AbbreviationChin. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-7718

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