How to format your references using the Chinese Nursing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chinese Nursing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grillner S. Neuroscience. Human locomotor circuits conform. Science. 2011;334(6058):912-913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations. Nature. 2000;404(6779):762-766.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khila A, Abouheif E, Rowe L. Function, developmental genetics, and fitness consequences of a sexually antagonistic trait. Science. 2012;336(6081):585-589.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Opremcak A, Pechenezhskiy IV, Howington C, et al. Measurement of a superconducting qubit with a microwave photon counter. Science. 2018;361(6408):1239-1242.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickenson J, Freeman F, Mills CL, Sivasubramaniam S, Thode C. Molecular Pharmacology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Tally RT, Battista CM, eds. Ecocriticism and Geocriticism: Overlapping Territories in Environmental and Spatial Literary Studies. Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tack D, Appiah V. Acquisition Protocols for Thoracic CT. In: Schoepf UJ, Meinel FG, eds. Multidetector-Row CT of the Thorax. Medical Radiology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:59-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chinese Nursing Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Saturn’s Moon Enceladus Could Be Suitable For Primitive Life. IFLScience. Published May 13, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amtrak: Information on Subsidies in Thruway Bus Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
John SP. Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis polypodioides. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pareles J, Ratliff B, Caramanica J, et al. New Chapters From Our Pop Dreams. New York Times. September 18, 2016:AR109.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChinese Nursing Research
AbbreviationChin. Nurs. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-7718

Other styles