How to format your references using the Integrative Medicine International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Integrative Medicine International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maienschein J: Old wine in new bottles. Nature 2000;407:21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimes RW, Nuttall WJ: Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance. Science 2010;329:799–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta S, Ferreira CH, Miesenböck G: FoxP influences the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision in Drosophila. Science 2014;344:901–904.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shoji M, Sato K, Yukitake H, Naito M, Nakayama K: Involvement of the Wbp pathway in the biosynthesis of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide with anionic polysaccharide. Sci Rep 2014;4:5056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Juhnke GA, Granello DH, Granello PF: Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Rao MM: Probability Theory with Applications. Second Edition Boston, MA, Springer US, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Pisano A, Verniero L, Masserini F: Prone Positioning to Reduce Mortality in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; in Landoni G, Mucchetti M, Zangrillo A, Bellomo R (eds): Reducing Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Integrative Medicine International.

Blog post
Andrew E: Commonly Used Pesticide Has Detrimental Consequences On Bumblebee Foraging. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal-Aid Highways: Increased Reliance on Contractors Can Pose Oversight Challenges for Federal and State Officials. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers SL: Fear of Cancer and Theory of Planned Behavior as Predictors of Pap Screenings 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B: A Playwright Intent on Naming, and Goading, the Beast Within. New York Times 2016;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntegrative Medicine International
AbbreviationIntegr. Med. Int.
ISSN (print)2296-7389
ISSN (online)2296-7362

Other styles