How to format your references using the Journal of Hand Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hand Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lauher JW. Chemistry. A versatile molecular trap built from hydrogen-bonded tiles. Science. 2011;333(6041):415-416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson JL, Shuttleworth TJ. How many Orai’s does it take to make a CRAC channel? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1961.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM. Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification. Nature. 2000;403(6771):734-740.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam RK, Thi Le X, Nicholls PK, Cake MA, Fawcett D. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Cramer T, A. Schmitt C, eds. Metabolism in Cancer. Vol 207. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Shtober-Zisu N, Inbar M. Geomorphology. In: Zohary T, Sukenik A, Berman T, Nishri A, eds. Lake Kinneret: Ecology and Management. Springer Netherlands; 2014:69-77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hand Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Get Off The Couch And Into Exercise. IFLScience. Published May 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Budget Authority Involved in Three Rescissions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya M. Planter Boxes and Rain Gardens for Urban Stormwater Management: Performance of Extended Field Application. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. No-Frills Cuban Fare, and Cheer. New York Times. December 3, 2006:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hand Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Hand Ther.
ISSN (print)0894-1130
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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