How to format your references using the Journal of Hand Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hand Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. Indian space agency sets its sights on a mission to the Moon. Nature. 2000;406(6791):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castro JM, Dingwell DB. Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile. Nature. 2009;461(7265):780-783.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu L, Koymen AR, Mohanty SK. Crystalline magnetic carbon nanoparticle assisted photothermal delivery into cells using CW near-infrared laser beam. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5106.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Okamoto I, Arnaud D, Le Baccon P, et al. Evidence for de novo imprinted X-chromosome inactivation independent of meiotic inactivation in mice. Nature. 2005;438(7066):369-373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari S. Structural Dynamic Analysis with Generalized Damping Models. Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, eds. Climate Change Adaptation in Developed Nations: From Theory to Practice. Vol 42. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
King-Lacroix J, Martin A. KEDS: Decentralised Network Security for the Smart Home Environment. In: Cuellar J, ed. Smart Grid Security: Second International Workshop, SmartGridSec 2014, Munich, Germany, February 26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:63-78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hand Therapy.

Blog post
Luntz S. Newly Emerged Pacific “Island” Photographed For The First Time. IFLScience. Published March 13, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Secure Flight: Additional Actions Needed to Determine Program Effectiveness and Strengthen Privacy Oversight Mechanisms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilton LC. Case study on organic farming as a sustainable solution for African-American farmers. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Hands Speak Louder Than Words. New York Times. February 21, 2014:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hand Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Hand Ther.
ISSN (print)0894-1130
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles