How to format your references using the Journal of Hand Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hand Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien RD. Physics. Topology from the bottom up. Science. 2003;299(5613):1671-1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yagi K, Yunes N. I-Love-Q: unexpected universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars. Science. 2013;341(6144):365-368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aida T, Meijer EW, Stupp SI. Functional supramolecular polymers. Science. 2012;335(6070):813-817.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boffelli D, McAuliffe J, Ovcharenko D, et al. Phylogenetic shadowing of primate sequences to find functional regions of the human genome. Science. 2003;299(5611):1391-1394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji P, Pal SK. Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Kozak I, Arevalo JF, eds. Atlas of Wide-Field Retinal Angiography and Imaging. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lim JH. Intestinal Obstruction. In: Maconi G, Porro GB, eds. Ultrasound of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Medical Radiology. Springer; 2007:27-34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hand Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Preserving the X-ray Universe for future generations. IFLScience. Published October 31, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Technology: The Structure for Conducting Highway Pavement Research. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meza J. A Community Outreach Program for Latino Immigrant Families: Increasing Service Utilization. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu W. New Bronx District Attorney Fixes Her Sights on Rikers Island Cases. New York Times. March 5, 2016:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hand Therapy
AbbreviationJ. Hand Ther.
ISSN (print)0894-1130
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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