How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Generous advice. Nature, 435(7039), 241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deuker, M. M., & McMahon, M. (2014). Cancer biology: Enzyme meets a surprise target. Nature, 510(7504), 225–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Provenzano, V., Shapiro, A. J., & Shull, R. D. (2004). Reduction of hysteresis losses in the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 by the addition of iron. Nature, 429(6994), 853–857.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rambaut, A., Pybus, O. G., Nelson, M. I., Viboud, C., Taubenberger, J. K., & Holmes, E. C. (2008). The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus. Nature, 453(7195), 615–619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brunet, R. (2013). Sustainable Geography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, Y. (2015). Bio-based Polyols and Polyurethanes. (X. Luo & S. Hu, Eds.) (1st ed. 2015.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders, V. M. (2006). Adrenergic Regulation of Adaptive Immunity. In C. J. Welsh, M. W. Meagher, & E. M. Sternberg (Eds.), Neural and Neuroendocrine Mechanisms in Host Defense and Autoimmunity (pp. 81–100). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, September 5). NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Captures The First Stunning Views Of Jupiter’s Poles. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Remains Behind Schedule (No. T-AIMD-99-84). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kennedy, K. T. (2016). A Heuristic Study of Religious Spirituality and Meaningful Work (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2003, January 31). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Reaches Out To Vatican. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Deuker and McMahon 2014; Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deuker and McMahon 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rambaut et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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