How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. (2000). LIVING WITH A STAR: Controversy Flares Up Over NASA Solar Project. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5479), 528–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farzadfard, F., & Lu, T. K. (2014). Synthetic biology. Genomically encoded analog memory with precise in vivo DNA writing in living cell populations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6211), 1256272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, M. J., Tverdokhlebov, V. P., & Surkov, M. V. (2004). Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia. Nature, 432(7013), 97–100.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koscheev, A. P., Gromov, M. D., Mohapatra, R. K., & Ott, U. (2001). History of trace gases in presolar diamonds inferred from ion-implantation experiments. Nature, 412(6847), 615–617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2015). Guidelines for Defining Process Safety Competency Requirements. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Satapathy, S. C., Bhatt, Y. C., Joshi, A., & Mishra, D. K. (Eds.). (2016). Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2015, Volume 1 (Vol. 438). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gharib, M., & Giorgini, P. (2015). Modeling and Reasoning About Information Quality Requirements. In S. A. Fricker & K. Schneider (Eds.), Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: 21st International Working Conference, REFSQ 2015, Essen, Germany, March 23-26, 2015. Proceedings (pp. 49–64). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 10). California’s Famous Giant Sequoia “Tunnel Tree” Falls From Heavy Rain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy (No. 093122). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaffer, S. (2013). Harnessing innovation in the 21st century: the impact of leadership styles (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M., & Walsh, M. W. (2015, October 15). Treasury Considers Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Farzadfard and Lu 2014; Lawler 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farzadfard and Lu 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Koscheev et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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