How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N. (2000). Director of Wellcome centre resigns over damning report. Nature, 404(6779), 696.
A journal article with 2 authors
Primakoff, P., & Myles, D. G. (2002). Penetration, adhesion, and fusion in mammalian sperm-egg interaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2183–2185.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gürerk, O., Irlenbusch, B., & Rockenbach, B. (2006). The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5770), 108–111.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, B., Qu, J., Zhang, W., Tan, L., & Gao, Y. (2014). Numerical evaluation of the scale problem on the wind flow of a windbreak. Scientific reports, 4, 6619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohanty, S., & Ghosh, R. (2010). Planning a Scientific Career in Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schultz, B. K. (2015). A Practical Guide to Implementing School-Based Interventions for Adolescents with ADHD. (S. W. Evans, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roth-Bejerano, N., Navarro-Ródenas, A., & Gutiérrez, A. (2014). Types of Mycorrhizal Association. In V. Kagan-Zur, N. Roth-Bejerano, Y. Sitrit, & A. Morte (Eds.), Desert Truffles: Phylogeny, Physiology, Distribution and Domestication (pp. 69–80). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 16). Astronomers Searched 100,000 Galaxies For Signs Of Advanced Alien Civilizations. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Aviation Security: TSA Should Ensure Testing Data Are Complete and Fully Used to Improve Screener Training and Operations (No. GAO-16-704). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchison, D. (2017). An Examination of Educational Equity: The Impact of Accountability and Finance Reform Policies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, January 20). The First Couple: A Union of Mind and Ambition. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Loder 2000; Primakoff and Myles 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Primakoff and Myles 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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