How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bennett, V. C. (2012). Geophysics. Probing the mantle past. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6072), 1051–1052.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice, C. M., & Saeed, M. (2014). Hepatitis C: Treatment triumphs. Nature, 510(7503), 43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mendoza, M., Herrmann, H. J., & Succi, S. (2013). Hydrodynamic model for conductivity in graphene. Scientific reports, 3, 1052.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hou, Y., Du, X., Scheiner, S., McMeekin, D. P., Wang, Z., Li, N., et al. (2017). A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6367), 1192–1197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paschedag, A. R. (2004). CFD in der Verfahrenstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Núñez, A. A. (2013). Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems. (D. A. Sáez & C. E. Cortés, Eds.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Goto, Y., & Shibata, K. (2016). Emergence of Higher Exploration in Reinforcement Learning Using a Chaotic Neural Network. In A. Hirose, S. Ozawa, K. Doya, K. Ikeda, M. Lee, & D. Liu (Eds.), Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 40–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 28). Experimental Treatment Reverses Behavioral Symptoms Of Rett Syndrome In Mice. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Weather Satellites: Action Needed to Resolve Status of the U.S. Geostationary Satellite Program (No. NSIAD-91-252). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yildiz, S. (2015). Performance analysis of space-time trellis coded MIMO-OFDM systems (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2016, December 23). The Comforts of Jane. New York Times, p. BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bennett 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bennett 2012; Rice and Saeed 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rice and Saeed 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hou et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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