How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lorenz, R. (2003). Planetary science. The glitter of distant seas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 403–404.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schier, A. F., & Shen, M. M. (2000). Nodal signalling in vertebrate development. Nature, 403(6768), 385–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stewart, J. T., Gaebler, J. P., & Jin, D. S. (2008). Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas. Nature, 454(7205), 744–747.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Di Rienzo, C., Jacchetti, E., Cardarelli, F., Bizzarri, R., Beltram, F., & Cecchini, M. (2013). Unveiling LOX-1 receptor interplay with nanotopography: mechanotransduction and atherosclerosis onset. Scientific reports, 3, 1141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski, A., & Ben-Hamida, S. (2017). Evolutionary Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ács, N., Bánhidy, F. G., & Czeizel, A. E. (Eds.). (2010). Congenital Abnormalities and Preterm Birth Related to Maternal Illnesses During Pregnancy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Marsh, S., Noël, S., Storer, T., Wang, Y., Briggs, P., Robart, L., et al. (2012). Non-standards for Trust: Foreground Trust and Second Thoughts for Mobile Security. In C. Meadows & C. Fernandez-Gago (Eds.), Security and Trust Management: 7th International Workshop, STM 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 27-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 28–39). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 11). New Laser Surgery Can Turn Your Eyes From Brown To Blue For $5000. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners (No. GAO-15-740). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, C. (2012). A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017, January 15). Keeping a Sunny Spirit in the Face of Hardship. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lorenz 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lorenz 2003; Schier and Shen 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schier and Shen 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Di Rienzo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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