How to format your references using the Applied Research in Quality of Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Research in Quality of Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ernst, T. (2013). Engineering. Controlling the polarity of silicon nanowire transistors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6139), 1414–1415.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacLean, R. C., & Gudelj, I. (2006). Resource competition and social conflict in experimental populations of yeast. Nature, 441(7092), 498–501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kersten, S., Desvergne, B., & Wahli, W. (2000). Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature, 405(6785), 421–424.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, Y., Lee, A., Chen, J., Cadene, M., Chait, B. T., & MacKinnon, R. (2002). The open pore conformation of potassium channels. Nature, 417(6888), 523–526.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Temple, L. P., III. (2013). Implosion. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jonsson, B. (2011). Ecology of Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout: Habitat as a template for life histories. (N. Jonsson, Ed.) (Vol. 33). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Aguilar, M. I., & Demaerschalk, B. M. (2012). Stroke. In J. G. Burneo, B. M. Demaerschalk, & M. E. Jenkins (Eds.), Neurology: An Evidence-Based Approach (pp. 45–74). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Research in Quality of Life.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, April 25). Earliest Known Pterodactyloid Discovered in China. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). No Child Left Behind Act: Improved Accessibility to Education’s Information Could Help States Further Implement Teacher Qualification Requirements (No. GAO-06-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Birtler, E. R. (2014). Group therapy and knowledge of neuroplastic principles: The impact of health literacy on client locus of control in a therapy setting (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gant, K. (2011, February 27). Quotation of the Day. New York Times, p. A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ernst 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ernst 2013; MacLean and Gudelj 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacLean and Gudelj 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Research in Quality of Life
AbbreviationAppl. Res. Qual. Life
ISSN (print)1871-2584
ISSN (online)1871-2576
ScopeLife-span and Life-course Studies

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