How to format your references using the Insurance Mathematics and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insurance Mathematics and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell, M.J., 2003. Geochemistry. The importance of being alkaline. Science 302, 580–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mastrandrea, M.D., Schneider, S.H., 2004. Probabilistic integrated assessment of “dangerous” climate change. Science 304, 571–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J., Lyons, T.W., 2013. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497, 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Piggott, A.Y., Lu, J., Babinec, T.M., Lagoudakis, K.G., Petykiewicz, J., Vučković, J., 2014. Inverse design and implementation of a wavelength demultiplexing grating coupler. Sci. Rep. 4, 7210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pommier, S., Gravouil, A., Combescure, A., Moës, N., 2013. Extended Finite Element Method for Crack Propagation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Wiener, R.L., Bornstein, B.H., Schopp, R., Willborn, S.L. (Eds.), 2007. Social Consciousness in Legal Decision Making: Psychological Perspectives. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, X., Jiang, J., Min, G., 2009. Multi-agent Based Personal File Management Using Case Based Reasoning, in: Corchado, E., Wu, X., Oja, E., Herrero, Á., Baruque, B. (Eds.), Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 26–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insurance Mathematics and Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Testing Ancient Human Hearing Via Fossilized Ear Bones [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Agricultural Attache Role Overseas: What He Does and How He Can Be More Effective for the United States (No. ID-75-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, N.N., 2013. The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. O Slapstick Tragedy! New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Mastrandrea and Schneider, 2004; Russell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mastrandrea and Schneider, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Piggott et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInsurance Mathematics and Economics
AbbreviationInsur. Math. Econ.
ISSN (print)0167-6687
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability

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