How to format your references using the Insurance Mathematics and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insurance Mathematics and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubin, M.A., 2002. Tech.Sight. Understanding disease cell by cell. Science 296, 1329–1330.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huber, C., Wächtershäuser, G., 2006. alpha-Hydroxy and alpha-amino acids under possible Hadean, volcanic origin-of-life conditions. Science 314, 630–632.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bridgham, J.T., Carroll, S.M., Thornton, J.W., 2006. Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science 312, 97–101.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Diaz-Herraiz, M., Jurado, V., Cuezva, S., Laiz, L., Pallecchi, P., Tiano, P., Sanchez-Moral, S., Saiz-Jimenez, C., 2014. Deterioration of an Etruscan tomb by bacteria from the order Rhizobiales. Sci. Rep. 4, 3610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shynk, J.J., 2016. Mathematical Foundations for Linear Circuits and Systems in Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shah, R., 2015. Lipid Nanoparticles: Production, Characterization and Stability, SpringerBriefs in Pharmaceutical Science & Drug Development. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaikovina Kula, R., Fushida, K., Kawaguchi, S., Iida, H., 2010. Analysis of Bug Fixing Processes Using Program Slicing Metrics, in: Ali Babar, M., Vierimaa, M., Oivo, M. (Eds.), Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 32–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insurance Mathematics and Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Long Term Memories May Not Be Stored In Synapses Afterall [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Protest Alleging Agency Did Not Evaluate Proposals Fairly (No. B-178220). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCollough, K.D., 2017. Applying Military Developments in Netcentricity to Civilian Emergency Management (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. War Ends, but Divisions Remain. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rubin, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Huber and Wächtershäuser, 2006; Rubin, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huber and Wächtershäuser, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Diaz-Herraiz et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInsurance Mathematics and Economics
AbbreviationInsur. Math. Econ.
ISSN (print)0167-6687
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Economics and Econometrics
Statistics and Probability

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