How to format your references using the Handbook of Clinical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Handbook of Clinical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell, T.P., 2001. Polymer dynamics. Chance encounters. Science 293, 446–447.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, Z.-F., Zhou, J.-H., 2013. Can we identify source lithology of basalt? Sci. Rep. 3, 1856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mukhopadhyay, S., Farley, K.A., Montanari, A., 2001. A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3. Science 291, 1952–1955.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, J., Cheng, K.C.-C., Johnson, R.L., et al., 2011. Chemical genomic profiling for antimalarial therapies, response signatures, and molecular targets. Science 333, 724–729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski, A., Ben-Hamida, S., 2017. Evolutionary Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wong, T.-C., Han, S.S., Zhang, H. (Eds.), 2015. Population Mobility, Urban Planning and Management in China. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Böttcher, B., Schilling, R., Wang, J., 2013. Sample Path Properties, in: Schilling, R., Wang, J. (Eds.), Lévy Matters III: Lévy-Type Processes: Construction, Approximation and Sample Path Properties, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 111–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Handbook of Clinical Neurology.

Blog post
Felton, J., 2017. Dear Class Of 2017: Bill Gates Reveals What He Wishes He Knew When He Started Out [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Highlights of a Forum: Health Care 20 Years From Now--Taking Steps Today to Meet Tomorrow’s Challenges (No. GAO-07-1155SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parada, P.M., 2013. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2003. Yevgeny Kolobov, 57; Founded an Opera Theater. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russell, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Russell, 2001; Yang and Zhou, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Zhou, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yuan et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (print)0072-9752

Other styles