How to format your references using the Handbook of Clinical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Handbook of Clinical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, R.H., 2003. Evolution. Wingless insects and plucked chickens. Science 299, 1854–1855.
A journal article with 2 authors
Straub, T., Becker, P.B., 2013. Comment on “Drosophila dosage compensation involves enhanced Pol II recruitment to male X-linked promoters.” Science 340, 273.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silbergeld, E., Lerman, S., Hushka, L., 2004. Ethics. Human health research ethics. Science 305, 949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Balthrop, J., Forrest, S., Newman, M.E.J., et al., 2004. Computer science. Technological networks and the spread of computer viruses. Science 304, 527–529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelton, T., 2013. Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Coskun, H.G., Cigizoglu, H.K., Maktav, M.D. (Eds.), 2008. Integration of Information for Environmental Security, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Mantel, H., Sudbrock, H., 2009. Information-Theoretic Modeling and Analysis of Interrupt-Related Covert Channels, in: Degano, P., Guttman, J., Martinelli, F. (Eds.), Formal Aspects in Security and Trust: 5th International Workshop, FAST 2008 Malaga, Spain, October 9-10, 2008 Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Handbook of Clinical Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Homemade Magneto Shoes Let This X-Men Fan Walk On The Ceiling [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (No. PEMD-91-23). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, J.D., 2012. Disparity in healthcare among Black Americans in the United States, a review of the literature (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1994. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Straub and Becker, 2013; Thomas, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Straub and Becker, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Balthrop et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (print)0072-9752

Other styles