How to format your references using the Handbook of Clinical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Handbook of Clinical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal, F.B.M., 2009. Darwin’s last laugh. Nature 460, 175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bottos, A., Hynes, N.E., 2014. Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis. Nature 514, 309–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Garlaschelli, D., Caldarelli, G., Pietronero, L., 2003. Universal scaling relations in food webs. Nature 423, 165–168.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaplinsky, N., Braun, D., Lisch, D., et al., 2002. Biodiversity (Communications arising): maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts. Nature 416, 601–2; discussion 600, 602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W., 2009. Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lin, Y., 2012. Systemic Structure Behind Human Organizations: From Civilizations to Individuals, Contemporary Systems Thinking. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Marengo, J.A., Williams, E.R., Alves, L.M., et al., 2016. Extreme Seasonal Climate Variations in the Amazon Basin: Droughts and Floods, in: Nagy, L., Forsberg, B.R., Artaxo, P. (Eds.), Interactions Between Biosphere, Atmosphere and Human Land Use in the Amazon Basin, Ecological Studies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Handbook of Clinical Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch The Funniest Interview Of Stephen Hawking Ever [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. National School Lunch Program (No. 094675). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N.K., 2017. Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 7 Killed In North Caucasus Shootout. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Waal, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bottos and Hynes, 2014; de Waal, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bottos and Hynes, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaplinsky et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleHandbook of Clinical Neurology
ISSN (print)0072-9752

Other styles