How to format your references using the Online Social Networks and Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Online Social Networks and Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Howard, Building the bionic woman, Science. 346 (2014) 274.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.M.B. Nijman, S.H. Friend, Cancer. Potential of the synthetic lethality principle, Science. 342 (2013) 809–811.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.H. Vreeland, W.D. Rosenzweig, D.W. Powers, Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal, Nature. 407 (2000) 897–900.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I.Y. Dobrosotskaya, A.C. Seegmiller, M.S. Brown, J.L. Goldstein, R.B. Rawson, Regulation of SREBP processing and membrane lipid production by phospholipids in Drosophila, Science. 296 (2002) 879–883.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Le Ruyet, M. Pischella, Digital Communications 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
J. Fischer, P. Sanders, eds., Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 24th Annual Symposium, CPM 2013, Bad Herrenalb, Germany, June 17-19, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Balzer, M. Bonitz, Computation of Equilibrium States and Time-Propagation, in: M. Bonitz (Ed.), Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions Approach to Inhomogeneous Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Online Social Networks and Media.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Mars Looks Weirdly Different Everywhere We Look, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Comments on H.R. 5103, Mineta letter, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.R. Cannon, Microwave-supported acid hydrolysis for proteomics, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Singed From the Attack, Trees Find a Safer Home, New York Times. (2001) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOnline Social Networks and Media
ISSN (print)2468-6964

Other styles