How to format your references using the Online Social Networks and Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Online Social Networks and Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Triplett, Astronomers fume over night light, Nature. 405 (2000) 987–988.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Hwang, E.T.Y. Chang, Geophysics. Seafloor secrets revealed, Science. 346 (2014) 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.L. Andrew, H.-Y. Tsai, R. Menon, Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning, Science. 324 (2009) 917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Dong, V. Kathiresan, M.K. Fenwick, A.T. Torelli, Y. Zhang, J.D. Caranto, B. Dzikovski, A. Sharma, K.M. Lancaster, J.H. Freed, S.E. Ealick, B.M. Hoffman, H. Lin, Organometallic and radical intermediates reveal mechanism of diphthamide biosynthesis, Science. 359 (2018) 1247–1250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-M. Bouvier, O.H. Campanella, Extrusion Processing Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A. Flüchter, S. Richter, eds., Structures on the Move: Technologies of Governance in Transcultural Encounter, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Génard, M.-M. Memmah, B. Quilot-Turion, G. Vercambre, V. Baldazzi, J. Le Bot, N. Bertin, H. Gautier, F. Lescourret, L. Pagès, Process-Based Simulation Models Are Essential Tools for Virtual Profiling and Design of Ideotypes: Example of Fruit and Root, in: X. Yin, P.C. Struik (Eds.), Crop Systems Biology: Narrowing the Gaps between Crop Modelling and Genetics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Online Social Networks and Media.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Old World Monkey Brains may Have Evolved Complexity Before Size, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Elder, A Mixed-Method Investigation of the Missouri Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Pilot Program at a Private Midwestern University, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, 6 Proposed School Budgets Pass in Revote, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOnline Social Networks and Media
ISSN (print)2468-6964

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