How to format your references using the Instruments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Instruments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tranquada, J.M. Physics. Cuprates Get Orders to Charge. Science 2012, 337, 811–812.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müser, M.H.; Shakhvorostov, D. Applied Physics. Why Thick Can Be Slick. Science 2010, 328, 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitajima, T.S.; Kawashima, S.A.; Watanabe, Y. The Conserved Kinetochore Protein Shugoshin Protects Centromeric Cohesion during Meiosis. Nature 2004, 427, 510–517.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dhoot, G.K.; Gustafsson, M.K.; Ai, X.; Sun, W.; Standiford, D.M.; Emerson, C.P., Jr Regulation of Wnt Signaling and Embryo Patterning by an Extracellular Sulfatase. Science 2001, 293, 1663–1666.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krause, T.R. Leading with Safety; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471785279.
An edited book
Statistical Methods and Applications from a Historical Perspective: Selected Issues; Crescenzi, F., Mignani, S., Eds.; Studies in Theoretical and Applied Statistics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319055510.
A chapter in an edited book
Puzrin, A.M.; Alonso, E.E.; Pinyol, N.M. Caisson Failure Induced by Liquefaction: Barcelona Harbour, Spain. In Geomechanics of Failures; Alonso, E.E., Pinyol, N., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 85–148 ISBN 9789048135301.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Instruments.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Does My Voice Really Sound Like That? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Customs Service Modernization: Actions Needed to Correct Serious ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bathon, J.M. Examining the Characteristics of School Leaders and of Local Schools Where Indiana Educational Leadership Preparation Programs Place Their Graduates. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rutenberg, J. How Do You Solve a Problem Like Ben Carson? New York Times 2015, MM44.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInstruments
ISSN (online)2410-390X

Other styles