How to format your references using the Instruments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Instruments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walter, M.J. Earth science. A shear pathway to the core. Nature 2000, 403, 839–840.
A journal article with 2 authors
Youle, R.J.; van der Bliek, A.M. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and stress. Science 2012, 337, 1062–1065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Papp, B.; Pál, C.; Hurst, L.D. Metabolic network analysis of the causes and evolution of enzyme dispensability in yeast. Nature 2004, 429, 661–664.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roy, R.S.; Price, D.C.; Schliep, A.; Cai, G.; Korobeynikov, A.; Yoon, H.S.; Yang, E.C.; Bhattacharya, D. Single cell genome analysis of an uncultured heterotrophic stramenopile. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4780.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rangarao, K.V.; Mallik, R.K. Digital Signal Processing; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470034002.
An edited book
Nanotechnology Enabled In situ Sensors for Monitoring Health; Webster, T.J., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; ISBN 9781441972903.
A chapter in an edited book
Gutschick, V.P.; Pushnik, J.C. Internal Regulation of Nutrient Uptake by Relative Growth Rate and Nutrient-Use Efficiency. In Nutrient Acquisition by Plants: An Ecological Perspective; BassiriRad, H., Ed.; Ecological Studies; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 63–88 ISBN 9783540241867.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Instruments.

Blog post
Evans, K. New Zealand’s Yellow-Eyed Penguins Could Be Extinct In Just 25 years Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highway Projects: Many Federal and State Environmental Review Requirements Are Similar, and Little Duplication of Effort Occurs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici, T. An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tankersley, J. Economist Says Benefits Of Tax Cut Were Inflated. New York Times 2017, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInstruments
ISSN (online)2410-390X

Other styles