How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cardinale, B.J. Biodiversity improves water quality through niche partitioning. Nature 2011, 472, 86–89.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kopec, C.; Malinow, R. Neuroscience. Matters of size. Science 2006, 314, 1554–1555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velicer, G.J.; Kroos, L.; Lenski, R.E. Developmental cheating in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Nature 2000, 404, 598–601.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zou, Z.; Horowitz, L.F.; Montmayeur, J.P.; Snapper, S.; Buck, L.B. Genetic tracing reveals a stereotyped sensory map in the olfactory cortex. Nature 2001, 414, 173–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, B.; Banks, D.; Clark, L. Water Wells and Boreholes; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470031346.
An edited book
Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems: 6th International Conference, CPAIOR 2009 Pittsburgh, PA, USA, May 27-31, 2009 Proceedings; Hoeve, W.-J. van, Hooker, J.N., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5547; ISBN 9783642019289.
A chapter in an edited book
Meena, A.; El Mansori, M. Integrated Casting-Heat Treatment Process Route for Near Net Shape ADI Casting Production. In Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014; Tiryakioğlu, M., Campbell, J., Byczynski, G., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 35–41 ISBN 9783319485942.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Sports Stadium Lights May Alter Bat Behavior And Threaten Biodiversity (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office K-12 Education: States’ Test Security Policies and Procedures Varied; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, D.A. System of systems engineering: Prescribing the technical development effort to engineer a constituent system. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. An Early Admirer of ‘Star Wars.’ New York Times 2015, C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

Other styles