How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Foley, J.A. AtmospheRIC science. Tipping points in the tundra. Science 2005, 310, 627–628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gehrels, N.; Mészáros, P. Gamma-ray bursts. Science 2012, 337, 932–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lorsch, J.R.; Collins, F.S.; Lippincott-Schwartz, J. Cell Biology. Fixing problems with cell lines. Science 2014, 346, 1452–1453.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuo, H.-C.; Hui, S.; Choi, J.; Asiegbu, F.O.; Valkonen, J.P.T.; Lee, Y.-H. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warren, A.E.A.; Lerner, R.M.; Phelps, E. Thriving and Spirituality Among Youth; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118092699.
An edited book
Beneficial Microorganisms in Medical and Health Applications; Liong, M.-T., Ed.; Microbiology Monographs; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 28; ISBN 9783319232126.
A chapter in an edited book
Orihuela, L.; Vivas, C. $$H_2/H_{\infty }$$ Control for Networked Control Systems with Asynchronous Communication. In Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems; Guinaldo Losada, M., Rodríguez Rubio, F., Dormido Bencomo, S., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 111–131 ISBN 9783319212982.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Secrets Of How Earth’s Aurorae Are Produced Revealed By NASA Spacecraft Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Routine Disclosure of Broadcaster Financial Records; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanigan, L.G. Effects of Two Cancer Genes, HTLV-1 Tax and E-Cadherin, on Cancer Development and Progression. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Inspiring Horse Honored. New York Times 2012, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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