How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linden, H. Circadian Rhythms. A White Collar Protein Senses Blue Light. Science 2002, 297, 777–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anbar, A.D.; Knoll, A.H. Proterozoic Ocean Chemistry and Evolution: A Bioinorganic Bridge? Science 2002, 297, 1137–1142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray, B.; Huntress, W.T., Jr; Friedman, L.D. Mars Outposts: A Planetary Society Approach to Exploration. Nature 2001, 412, 254–255.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Hughes, L.; McIntyre, S.; Lindenmayer, D.B.; Parmesan, C.; Possingham, H.P.; Thomas, C.D. Ecology. Assisted Colonization and Rapid Climate Change. Science 2008, 321, 345–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke, R.M.; Nieboer, D.; Misiewicz, J. Fat-Tailed Distributions: Volume 1; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119054207.
An edited book
Dougherty, K.L. The Calculus of Consent and Constitutional Design; Edward, J., Ed.; Studies in Public Choice; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; Vol. 20; ISBN 9780387981703.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, A.; Kim, E. Spatial Agglomeration and Firm Performance in Korean Manufacturing Industry, 2012. In Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea; Kim, E., Kim, B.H.S., Eds.; New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 89–104 ISBN 9789811002984.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Hale, T. New Close-Ups of Saturn’s Rings Are Gorgeous And Fascinating Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Trademark ADP System: Patent Office Should Analyze Alternatives Before Contract Award; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaper, P. Meaning Making: Learning in Whistle Blowing. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Almosawa, S.; Hubbard, B. Yemen Airstrike Kills at Least 16. New York Times 2017, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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