How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. Fighting the Monster. Nature 2010, 466, S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Torquato, S.; Jiao, Y. Dense Packings of the Platonic and Archimedean Solids. Nature 2009, 460, 876–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill, R.J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, O.; Raine, N.E. Combined Pesticide Exposure Severely Affects Individual- and Colony-Level Traits in Bees. Nature 2012, 491, 105–108.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peltzer, N.; Darding, M.; Montinaro, A.; Draber, P.; Draberova, H.; Kupka, S.; Rieser, E.; Fisher, A.; Hutchinson, C.; Taraborrelli, L.; et al. LUBAC Is Essential for Embryogenesis by Preventing Cell Death and Enabling Haematopoiesis. Nature 2018, 557, 112–117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullock, J. Wireshark® for Security Professionals; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Indianapolis, Indiana, 2017; ISBN 9781119183457.
An edited book
Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 14th IFIP TC 8 International Conference, CISIM 2015, Warsaw, Poland, September 24-26, 2015, Proceedings; Saeed, K., Homenda, W., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9339; ISBN 9783319243689.
A chapter in an edited book
Solé, M.; Carmona, J. An SMT-Based Discovery Algorithm for C-Nets. In Application and Theory of Petri Nets: 33rd International Conference, PETRI NETS 2012, Hamburg, Germany, June 25-29, 2012. Proceedings; Haddad, S., Pomello, L., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 51–71 ISBN 9783642311307.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Fang, J. The Sharp-Shooting Skills of Archerfish Were Driven by Competition (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Survey of the Pricing of a NASA Contract with Eldec Corporation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wosu, U.L. Geochemical Analysis of Late Pleistocene Sediments from Fossil Lake, Northern Lake County, Oregon. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. Sharing a Name With His Game, and Doing His Best to Live Up to It. New York Times 2017, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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