How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanchez, P.A. Ecology. Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa. Science 2002, 295, 2019–2020.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sebolt-Leopold, J.S.; English, J.M. Mechanisms of Drug Inhibition of Signalling Molecules. Nature 2006, 441, 457–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sellman, B.R.; Mourez, M.; Collier, R.J. Dominant-Negative Mutants of a Toxin Subunit: An Approach to Therapy of Anthrax. Science 2001, 292, 695–697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frey, G.D.; Lavallo, V.; Donnadieu, B.; Schoeller, W.W.; Bertrand, G. Facile Splitting of Hydrogen and Ammonia by Nucleophilic Activation at a Single Carbon Center. Science 2007, 316, 439–441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer, S.M. Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783433603703.
An edited book
Hevner, A. Design Research in Information Systems: Theory and Practice; Chatterjee, S., Ed.; Integrated Series in Information Systems; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; Vol. 22; ISBN 9781441956521.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi, N.I. Time-Course Analysis of Radiocesium Uptake and Translocation in Rice by Radioisotope Imaging. In Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident; Nakanishi, T.M., Tanoi, K., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2013; pp. 37–48 ISBN 9784431543275.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Hale, T. People Working In These Jobs Are Most Likely To Cheat On Their Partner (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, L.A. Nursing Surveillance in the Acute Care Setting: Latent Variable Development and Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Activists Haunted by Their K.G.B. Ordeal. New York Times 2017, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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