How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eliasson, J. The Rising Pressure of Global Water Shortages. Nature 2015, 517, 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakosky, B.M.; Phillips, R.J. Mars’ Volatile and Climate History. Nature 2001, 412, 237–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, G.K.; Nudds, R.L.; Thomas, A.L.R. Flying and Swimming Animals Cruise at a Strouhal Number Tuned for High Power Efficiency. Nature 2003, 425, 707–711.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ge, G.-X.; Sun, H.-B.; Sun, H.-B.; Han, Y.; Song, F.-Q.; Zhao, J.-J.; Wang, G.-H.; Wan, J.-G. Reversible Switching of Magnetic States by Electric Fields in Nitrogenized-Divacancies Graphene Decorated by Tungsten Atoms. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahlemeyer-Stubbe, A.; Coleman, S. A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118763704.
An edited book
Understanding Hughes Syndrome: Case Studies for Patients; Hughes, G.R.V., Ed.; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848009325.
A chapter in an edited book
Rehm, G.; Uszkoreit, H. TECHNOLOGIE JĘZYKOWE DLA JĘZYKA POLSKIEGO. In The Polish Language in the Digital Age; Rehm, G., Uszkoreit, H., Eds.; White Paper Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 17–34 ISBN 9783642308109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Forest Loss Has Halved In The Past 30 Years, Latest Global Update Shows Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Medicaid: Graduate Medical Education Payments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg, M.B. Alternative Nitrogen for Subsequent Southern Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) Production Using Cool-Season Legumes. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler, E.; Dougherty, C. Woman ‘Madly in Love’ With the Gunman Says She Was Unaware of His Plans. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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