How to format your references using the Insects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Insects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert, R.T. High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature 2004, 429, 646–649.
A journal article with 2 authors
Racki, G.; Koeberl, C. Comment on “Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.” Science 2004, 303, 471; author reply 471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudovich, N.; Oron, D.; Silberberg, Y. Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. Nature 2002, 418, 512–514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, P.; Yang, S.; Sun, Q.; Chen, L.; Wang, P.; Ding, S.; Zhang, D.W. Direct deposition of uniform high-κ dielectrics on graphene. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, P. Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118105887.
An edited book
Circuit Design for Reliability; Reis, R., Cao, Y., Wirth, G., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2015; ISBN 9781461440772.
A chapter in an edited book
Pillai, B.V.S.; Kagale, S.; Chellamma, S. Enhancing Productivity and Performance of Oil Seed Crops under Environmental Stresses. In Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies; Venkateswarlu, B., Shanker, A.K., Shanker, C., Maheswari, M., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 139–161 ISBN 9789400722194.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Insects.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Antioxidant Supplements May Drive Skin Cancer Spread Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Passenger Rail Security: Enhanced Federal Leadership Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCorkle, W.B. Tongue, Nib, Block, Bit: Rhetorical Delivery and Technologies of Writing. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K.; Rappeport, A. Trump’s Tax Cut Could Lead to Broad Avoidance. New York Times 2017, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInsects
ISSN (online)2075-4450
ScopeInsect Science

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