How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mather, J.C., 2010. Politics and prophecy. Nature 467, S9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudrimont, A., Becskei, A., 2015. Gene regulation: Expression feels two pulses. Nature 527, 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, N., Bu, X., Feng, P., 2003. Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 426, 428–432.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, J., Wang, L., Wang, Y., Weng, X., Li, S., Jiang, Y., 2014. Developmental tuning of reflexive attentional effect to biological motion cues. Sci. Rep. 4, 5558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, S., 2011. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pereira, K.D., Mitchell, R.B. (Eds.), 2009. Pediatric Otolaryngology for the Clinician. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosman, P.A.N., Thierens, D., 2006. Numerical Optimization with Real-Valued Estimation-of-Distribution Algorithms, in: Pelikan, M., Sastry, K., CantúPaz, E. (Eds.), Scalable Optimization via Probabilistic Modeling, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 91–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Sky Watching Event Guide For 2015 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Reports Issued in July 1988 (No. 136598). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tablason, J.M., 2014. Recollecting (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, J., 2011. My Family’s Flop. New York Times WK10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mather, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015; Mather, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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