How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lightman, A., 2005. A tale of two loves. Nature 434, 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fehr, E., Rockenbach, B., 2003. Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism. Nature 422, 137–140.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holt, B.F., 3rd, Belkhadir, Y., Dangl, J.L., 2005. Antagonistic control of disease resistance protein stability in the plant immune system. Science 309, 929–932.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pál, C., Papp, B., Lercher, M.J., Csermely, P., Oliver, S.G., Hurst, L.D., 2006. Chance and necessity in the evolution of minimal metabolic networks. Nature 440, 667–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva, L.S., Simões, R., Gervásio, H., 2012. Design of Steel Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Gottlob, G., Grasso, G., Olteanu, D., Schallhart, C. (Eds.), 2013. Big Data: 29th British National Conference on Databases, BNCOD 2013, Oxford, UK, July 8-10, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Prieto, P.A., Prieto, P.A., Hall, C.A.S., 2013. Calculating the Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI or EROI) for Spain’s Solar Photovoltaic Energy, in: Hall, C.A.S. (Ed.), Spain’s Photovoltaic Revolution: The Energy Return on Investment, SpringerBriefs in Energy. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Teens Invent Condoms That Change Color When They Detect STDs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Automobile Weight and Safety (No. T-PEMD-91-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, C.M., 2014. Principals’ Understanding of Teacher Evaluations Connected to the Colorado Student Assessment Program (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Baker, A.L., 2016. Quest for New Life Ends in Tangle of Gang Ties. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lightman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fehr and Rockenbach, 2003; Lightman, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fehr and Rockenbach, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Pál et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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