How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J., 2014. Strategies against HIV/AIDS. Australia shows its neighbors how to stem an epidemic. Introduction. Science 345, 152–155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aβmann, M., Bayer, M., 2013. Compressive adaptive computational ghost imaging. Sci. Rep. 3, 1545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexandre, C., Baena-Lopez, A., Vincent, J.-P., 2014. Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless. Nature 505, 180–185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
WoldeGabriel, G., Haile-Selassie, Y., Renne, P.R., Hart, W.K., Ambrose, S.H., Asfaw, B., Heiken, G., White, T., 2001. Geology and palaeontology of the Late Miocene Middle Awash valley, Afar rift, Ethiopia. Nature 412, 175–178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mashadi, B., Crolla, D., 2012. Vehicle Powertrain Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ito, Y. (Ed.), 2014. Thought-Evoking Approaches in Engineering Problems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Antontsev, S., Shmarev, S., 2015. Space Localization of Energy Solutions, in: Shmarev, S. (Ed.), Evolution PDEs with Nonstandard Growth Conditions: Existence, Uniqueness, Localization, Blow-Up, Atlantis Studies in Differential Equations. Atlantis Press, Paris, pp. 185–217.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Antarctic Temperatures Reach Record Highs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Contract Award Practices: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Generally Observes Competitive Principles (No. RCED-93-63). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasami, S., 2015. Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. A Different World Is Awaiting the U.S. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Aβmann and Bayer, 2013; Cohen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aβmann and Bayer, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (WoldeGabriel et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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