How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, N.L., 2013. Applied physics. Colloid science collides with liquid crystals. Science 342, 1326–1327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet, E.G., Sleep, N.H., 2001. The habitat and nature of early life. Nature 409, 1083–1091.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsiang, S.M., Meng, K.C., Cane, M.A., 2011. Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nature 476, 438–441.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miwa, K., Takano, J., Omori, H., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K., Fujiwara, T., 2007. Plants tolerant of high boron levels. Science 318, 1417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bradley, D., 2015. Managing Minor Musculoskeletal Injuries and Conditions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Brunst, H., Müller, M.S., Nagel, W.E., Resch, M.M. (Eds.), 2012. Tools for High Performance Computing 2011: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Parallel Tools for High Performance Computing, September 2011, ZIH, Dresden. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yokobori, T., 2006. ICF contribution to fracture research in the second half of the 20th century, in: Carpinteri, A., Mai, Y.-W., Ritchie, R.O. (Eds.), Advances in Fracture Research: Honour and Plenary Lectures Presented at the 11th International Conference on Fracture (ICF11), Held in Turin, Italy, on March 20–25, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cheap Vaccine Has Almost Wiped Meningitis A From Africa [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. New Denver Airport: Impact of the Delayed Baggage System (No. RCED-95-35BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duran, P.E., 2010. Factors and prevention strategies to fight childhood obesity (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2016. Moscow Broadcast Tower Is Seen as Endangered. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2013; Nisbet and Sleep, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet and Sleep, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Miwa et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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