How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kazilek, C., 2010. SPORE series winner. Got a question? “Ask A Biologist.” Science 330, 1192–1193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka, M., Lisberger, S.G., 2001. Regulation of the gain of visually guided smooth-pursuit eye movements by frontal cortex. Nature 409, 191–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gordon, A.L., Susanto, R.D., Vranes, K., 2003. Cool Indonesian throughflow as a consequence of restricted surface layer flow. Nature 425, 824–828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, K., Zhao, J., Cheng, Q., Dong, D.S., Cui, T.J., 2014. Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm. Sci. Rep. 4, 5935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Torres-Moreno, J.-M., 2014. Automatic Text Summarization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Theeramunkong, T., Kijsirikul, B., Cercone, N., Ho, T.-B. (Eds.), 2009. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 13th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2009 Bangkok, Thailand, April 27-30, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lalanda, P., McCann, J.A., Diaconescu, A., 2013. Autonomic Computing Architectures, in: McCann, J.A., Diaconescu, A. (Eds.), Autonomic Computing: Principles, Design and Implementation, Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. Springer, London, pp. 95–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Ode To The Fruit Fly: Tiny Lab Subject Crucial To Basic Research [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. FCC: Policies and Rules Concerning Children’s Television Programming--Revision of Programming Policies for Television Broadcast Stations (No. OGC-96-37). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nash, M.C., 2017. Reading Achievement: A Study of Perceptions of First-Grade Teachers and the Relationship Between Attendance and Reading Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I.P., 1919. SAFE DEMOCRACY. New York Times Editorial37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kazilek, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kazilek, 2010; Tanaka and Lisberger, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tanaka and Lisberger, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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