How to format your references using the Soils and Foundations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soils and Foundations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broz, P., 2015. Immunology: Caspase target drives pyroptosis. Nature 526, 642–643.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greene, C.H., Pershing, A.J., 2007. Oceans. Climate drives sea change. Science 315, 1084–1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., Lettenmaier, D.P., 2005. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438, 303–309.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, L., He, D., Feng, S., Yu, C., Hu, L., Qiu, J., Chen, D., 2014. Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber. Sci. Rep. 4, 6139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy, T., 2012. Mechanical and Electromagnetic Vibrations and Waves. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cohen, E., Moussian, B. (Eds.), 2016. Extracellular Composite Matrices in Arthropods. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwenn, R., 2007. Solar Wind Sources and Their Variations over the Solar Cycle, in: Baker, D.N., Klecker, B., Schwartz, S.J., Schwenn, R., Steiger, R.V. (Eds.), Solar Dynamics and Its Effects on the Heliosphere and Earth, Space Sciences Series of ISSI. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 51–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soils and Foundations.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. Bacterial Colonies Alternate Feeding Times To Survive Bad Times [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by AIMD-10.1.21) (No. AIMD-10.1.21). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim, L., 2010. Dual-class vs. single-class firms: Information environment (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. JUSTICES, RULING 5-4, ENDORSE PERSONAL RIGHT TO OWN GUN. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Broz, 2015; Greene and Pershing, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greene and Pershing, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoils and Foundations
ISSN (print)0038-0806
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Civil and Structural Engineering

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