How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Veltman, C. (2003). Genesis of a high-tech hub. Nature, 426(6967), 700–704.
A journal article with 2 authors
Downing, A. L., & Leibold, M. A. (2002). Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs. Nature, 416(6883), 837–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barsic, A., Grover, G., & Piestun, R. (2014). Three-dimensional super-resolution and localization of dense clusters of single molecules. Scientific reports, 4, 5388.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wright, C. F., Teichmann, S. A., Clarke, J., & Dobson, C. M. (2005). The importance of sequence diversity in the aggregation and evolution of proteins. Nature, 438(7069), 878–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dehn, M. J. (2010). Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bhattacharya, S. (2012). Fowler-Nordheim Field Emission: Effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures. (K. P. Ghatak, Ed.) (Vol. 170). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kneissl, M., Rass, J., Schade, L., & Schwarz, U. T. (2013). Growth and Optical Properties of GaN-Based Non- and Semipolar LEDs. In T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, & H. Morkoc (Eds.), III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications (pp. 83–119). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 23). When Your Body Becomes Your Password, The End Of The Login Is Nigh. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Technology Transfer: DOE Has Fewer Partnerships, and They Rely More on Private Funding (No. GAO-01-568). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi, A. (2016). Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017, August 25). The Fight Card Often Features the Race Card. New York Times, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Veltman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Downing and Leibold 2002; Veltman 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Downing and Leibold 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wright et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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