How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Childress, L. (2014). Physics. Diamond dynamics under control. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1247–1248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elimelech, M., & Phillip, W. A. (2011). The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6043), 712–717.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atwood, J. L., Barbour, L. J., & Jerga, A. (2002). Storage of methane and freon by interstitial van der Waals confinement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5577), 2367–2369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lindroth, A. M., Cao, X., Jackson, J. P., Zilberman, D., McCallum, C. M., Henikoff, S., & Jacobsen, S. E. (2001). Requirement of CHROMOMETHYLASE3 for maintenance of CpXpG methylation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2077–2080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1999). Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grab, S., & Knight, J. (Eds.). (2015). Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zuckerman, G. (2012). Generalized Harish-Chandra Modules. In A. Joseph, A. Melnikov, & I. Penkov (Eds.), Highlights in Lie Algebraic Methods (pp. 123–143). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 17). 8 Terrifying Ways The World Could Actually End. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Gas Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Observations on the Implementation of the Integrity Management Program (No. GAO-06-588T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, G. M. (2012). Roles of vitamin D and calcium in cancer and diet history (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011, May 5). Scouting Report. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Childress 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Childress 2014; Elimelech and Phillip 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elimelech and Phillip 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lindroth et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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