How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. (2010). Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature, 467(7317), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldenfeld, N., & Woese, C. (2007). Biology’s next revolution. Nature, 445(7126), 369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Swain, M. R., Vasisht, G., & Tinetti, G. (2008). The presence of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet. Nature, 452(7185), 329–331.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Steinmetz, E. J., Conrad, N. K., Brow, D. A., & Corden, J. L. (2001). RNA-binding protein Nrd1 directs poly(A)-independent 3’-end formation of RNA polymerase II transcripts. Nature, 413(6853), 327–331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pakurar, A. S., & Bigbee, J. W. (2005). Digital Histology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gladwell, G. M. L., Huyghe, J. M., Raats, P. A. C., & Cowin, S. C. (Eds.). (2005). IUTAM Symposium on Physicochemical and Electromechanical Interactions in Porous Media (Vol. 125). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, H., Yang, M., Wang, H., & McClean, S. (2009). Machine Learning and Statistical Approaches to Support the Discrimination of Neuro-degenerative Diseases Based on Gait Analysis. In S. McClean, P. Millard, E. El-Darzi, & C. Nugent (Eds.), Intelligent Patient Management (pp. 57–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 7). Icelandic Scientists Just Successfully Drilled Into A Volcano’s Belly. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Highway Safety: Safety Belt Use Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society (No. RCED-92-106). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamora, L. (2017). Azura digital health: Scheduling application and prescription service for women’s health (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2017, May 10). Vape Shops Fear Effects Of New F.D.A. Rules. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Goldenfeld and Woese 2007; Grayson 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldenfeld and Woese 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Steinmetz et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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