How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts, B. (2012). H5N1. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6088), 1521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waller, L., & Tian, L. (2015). Computational imaging: Machine learning for 3D microscopy. Nature, 523(7561), 416–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laubach, M., Wessberg, J., & Nicolelis, M. A. (2000). Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task. Nature, 405(6786), 567–571.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Antoci, V., Handler, G., Campante, T. L., Thygesen, A. O., Moya, A., Kallinger, T., et al. (2011). The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δSct star by efficient envelope convection. Nature, 477(7366), 570–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griffin, P. M., Nembhard, H. B., DeFlitch, C. J., Bastian, N. D., Kang, H., & Muñoz, D. A. (2015). Healthcare Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Trausan-Matu, S., Boyer, K. E., Crosby, M., & Panourgia, K. (Eds.). (2014). Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 12th International Conference, ITS 2014, Honolulu, HI, USA, June 5-9, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8474). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Evers, C. W. (2012). Organisational Contexts for Lifelong Learning: Individual and Collective Learning Configurations. In D. N. Aspin, J. Chapman, K. Evans, & R. Bagnall (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Lifelong Learning (pp. 61–76). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, August 12). Ancient Primate Brains Help Fill In The Gaps In Evolution Of Human Intelligence. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Safe Routes to School: Progress in Implementing the Program, but a Comprehensive Plan to Evaluate Program Outcomes Is Needed (No. GAO-08-789). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M. (2015). A.R.T. / Atmospheric. Retail. Therapy (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, K. (2017, September 26). Commuter Wear. New York Times, p. ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alberts 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Alberts 2012; Waller and Tian 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waller and Tian 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Antoci et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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