How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2006). Burst of energy. Nature, 441(7095), 810–811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pouille, F., & Scanziani, M. (2001). Enforcement of temporal fidelity in pyramidal cells by somatic feed-forward inhibition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1159–1163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloch, I., I., Hansch, T. W., & Esslinger, T. (2000). Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition. Nature, 403(6766), 166–170.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kawahara, Y., Zinshteyn, B., Sethupathy, P., Iizasa, H., Hatzigeorgiou, A. G., & Nishikura, K. (2007). Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1137–1140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trigeassou, J.-C. (2011). Electrical Machines Diagnosis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Paredes, R., Cardoso, J. S., & Pardo, X. M. (Eds.). (2015). Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: 7th Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2015, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, June 17-19, 2015, Proceedings (Vol. 9117). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlova, M. (2009). Technology Education and ESD. In M. Pavlova (Ed.), Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable Development: Empowering Individuals for the Future (pp. 67–86). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 25). Scientists Create Functioning Whole Organ From Cells. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Information Technology: Justice Plans to Improve Oversight of Agency Projects (No. GAO-03-135). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer, K. A. (2010). System for Identifying Plankton from the SIPPER Instrument Platform (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perabo, S. (2017, March 10). When Good Mothers Bully Back. New York Times, p. ST8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2006; Pouille and Scanziani 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pouille and Scanziani 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawahara et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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