How to format your references using the Innovative Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovative Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gratton, E. (2011). Applied physics. Deeper tissue imaging with total detection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6020), 1016–1017.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGurk, L., & Bonini, N. M. (2011). Cell biology. Yeast informs Alzheimer’s disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1212–1213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, M., Johnston, M. B., & Snaith, H. J. (2013). Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition. Nature, 501(7467), 395–398.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Munteanu, A., Cotterell, J., Solé, R. V., & Sharpe, J. (2014). Design principles of stripe-forming motifs: the role of positive feedback. Scientific reports, 4, 5003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park, S., & Guille-Escuret, G. (2017). Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eckert, C., Katsikas, S. K., & Pernul, G. (Eds.). (2014). Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8647). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanders, A. R. (2014). Genetics of Schizophrenia. In P. G. Janicak, S. R. Marder, R. Tandon, & M. Goldman (Eds.), Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 59–70). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovative Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 23). NASA Telescope Captures Spectacular Snap Of The Sun’s Sizzling X-rays. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Joint Strike Fighter: Strong Risk Management Essential as Program Enters Most Challenging Phase (No. GAO-09-711T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuthbertson, T. H. (2014). The fool’s replies: Toward a poetics of folly in Shakespeare’s comedies (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2010, May 1). The Court As Mr. Fix-It? New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gratton 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gratton 2011; McGurk and Bonini 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGurk and Bonini 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Munteanu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovative Higher Education
AbbreviationInnov. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0742-5627
ISSN (online)1573-1758

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