How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walton, Krista S. 2015. “Inorganic Chemistry: Movies of a Growth Mechanism.” Nature 523 (7562): 535–536.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldfine, Howard, and Dennis E. Vance. 2001. “Obituary: Konrad E. Bloch (1912-2000).” Nature 409 (6822): 779.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng, Fanke, Kevin P. McGrath, and Amir H. Hoveyda. 2014. “Multifunctional Organoboron Compounds for Scalable Natural Product Synthesis.” Nature 513 (7518): 367–374.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tarassov, Kirill, Vincent Messier, Christian R. Landry, Stevo Radinovic, Mercedes M. Serna Molina, Igor Shames, Yelena Malitskaya, Jackie Vogel, Howard Bussey, and Stephen W. Michnick. 2008. “An in Vivo Map of the Yeast Protein Interactome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1465–1470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratzliff, Anna, Jürgen Unutzer, Wayne Katon, and Kari A. Stephens. 2015. Integrated Care. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gutiérrez, Francisco, and Mateo Gutiérrez, eds. 2014. Landscapes and Landforms of Spain. World Geomorphological Landscapes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kraetzer, Christian, and Jana Dittmann. 2012. “Plausibility Considerations on Steganalysis as a Security Mechanism – Discussions on the Example of Audio Steganalysis.” In Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security VIII: Special Issue on Pattern Recognition for IT Security, edited by Yun Q. Shi and Stefan Katzenbeisser, 80–101. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “David Attenborough Says The Great Barrier Reef Is In ‘Grave Danger’ – It’s Time To Step Up.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Space Acquisitions: Challenges in Commercializing Technologies Developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. GAO-11-21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dutta, Ashutosh. 2010. “Systems Optimization for Mobility Management.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes, Brooks. 2017. “Golden Globes Put Stars and Politics on the Stage.” New York Times, January 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walton 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Walton 2015; Goldfine and Vance 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goldfine and Vance 2001)
  • Three authors: (Meng, McGrath, and Hoveyda 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tarassov et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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