How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barrangou, Rodolphe. 2014. “RNA Events. Cas9 Targeting and the CRISPR Revolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6185): 707–708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thermann, Rolf, and Matthias W. Hentze. 2007. “Drosophila MiR2 Induces Pseudo-Polysomes and Inhibits Translation Initiation.” Nature 447 (7146): 875–878.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, X., R. L. Gross, and A. G. Suits. 2001. “‘Heavy Electron’ Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Rotationally Resolved Ion Pair Imaging of CH3+.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5551): 2527–2529.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hayashi, Masamitsu, Luc Thomas, Rai Moriya, Charles Rettner, and Stuart S. P. Parkin. 2008. “Current-Controlled Magnetic Domain-Wall Nanowire Shift Register.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5873): 209–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast, David Kent. 2010. Interior Detailing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Naselli-Flores, Luigi, and Giampaolo Rossetti, eds. 2010. Fifty Years after the ‘“Homage to Santa Rosalia”’: Old and New Paradigms on Biodiversity in Aquatic Ecosystems. Vol. 213. Developments in Hydrobiology 213. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Argatov, Ivan, and Gennady Mishuris. 2015. “Linear Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Model for Articular Cartilage Layer.” In Contact Mechanics of Articular Cartilage Layers: Asymptotic Models, edited by Gennady Mishuris, 149–202. Advanced Structured Materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Supermassive Black Hole Is Thirty Times Larger Than It Should Be.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Cost for Automatic Data Processing Activities in the Federal Government. B-115369. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contartesi, Richard A. 2010. “School Climate: A Correlational Analysis of Superintendent Leadership Communication and Employee Performance.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Villarosa, Linda. 2007. “The Wheezing That Could Signal Childhood Asthma.” New York Times, May 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barrangou 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Barrangou 2014; Thermann and Hentze 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thermann and Hentze 2007)
  • Three authors: (Liu, Gross, and Suits 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hayashi et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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