How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ballentine, Chris J. 2002. “Geochemistry. Tiny Tracers Tell Tall Tales.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5571): 1247–1248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knepper, Mark A., and Peter Agre. 2004. “Structural Biology. The Atomic Architecture of a Gas Channel.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5690): 1573–1574.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wade, Joseph T., Daniel B. Hall, and Kevin Struhl. 2004. “The Transcription Factor Ifh1 Is a Key Regulator of Yeast Ribosomal Protein Genes.” Nature 432 (7020): 1054–1058.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pedersen, Thomas H., Ole B. Nielsen, Graham D. Lamb, and D. George Stephenson. 2004. “Intracellular Acidosis Enhances the Excitability of Working Muscle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5687): 1144–1147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rochange, Christine, Sascha Uhrig, and Pascal Sainrat. 2013. Time-Predictable Architectures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Argoneto, Pierluigi. 2011. Innovative Tools for Business Coalitions in B2B Applications: How Negotiation, Auction and Game Theory Can Support Small- and Medium-Sized Business in E-Business. Edited by Paolo Renna. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galdi, V., G. Castaldi, V. Fiumara, V. Pierro, I. M. Pinto, and L. B. Felsen. 2006. “High-Frequency/Short-Pulse Wave Dynamics in Ray-Chaotic Scenarios: A Survey.” In Complex Computing-Networks: Brain-like and Wave-Oriented Electrodynamic Algorithms, edited by İzzet Cem Göknar and Levent Sevgi, 37–43. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Volcanic Eruptions Cooled Oceans For Centuries.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Information Security: Serious Weaknesses Put State Department and FAA Operations at Risk. T-AIMD-98-170. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young, Aaron J. 2017. “An Examination of Cultures of Innovation within Esoteric Technology Provider: A Look into Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE).” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, John. 2017. “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman.” New York Times, August 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ballentine 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ballentine 2002; Knepper and Agre 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knepper and Agre 2004)
  • Three authors: (Wade, Hall, and Struhl 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pedersen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

Other styles