How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perros, Manos. 2015. “Infectious Disease. A Sustainable Model for Antibiotics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6226): 1062–1064.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sagan, Selena M., and Peter Sarnow. 2013. “Molecular Biology. RNAi, Antiviral after All.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6155): 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depine, Gabriela V., Christopher L. Andronicos, and Jason Phipps-Morgan. 2008. “Near-Isothermal Conditions in the Middle and Lower Crust Induced by Melt Migration.” Nature 452 (7183): 80–83.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Han, Yun-Guang, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Hong-Wei Li, Wei Chen, Shuang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, and Zheng-Fu Han. 2014. “Security of Modified Ping-Pong Protocol in Noisy and Lossy Channel.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gavin, Helen, and Theresa Porter. 2014. Female Aggression. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jajodia, Sushil, Krishna Kant, Pierangela Samarati, Anoop Singhal, Vipin Swarup, and Cliff Wang, eds. 2014. Secure Cloud Computing. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berman, Dora M. 2016. “Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates.” In Pancreatic Islet Isolation: From the Mouse to the Clinic, edited by Miriam Ramírez-Domínguez, 57–66. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “World’s Largest Solar Farm Goes Online In California.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Transportation Infrastructure: A Comparison of Federal and State Highway Laws. RCED-90-157. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shina, Yael Elanit. 2013. “Youth under the Care of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems: A Grant Proposal for Crossover Youth.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. 2011. “Lori McCoy and Edwin Rossman Jr.” New York Times, March 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perros 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perros 2015; Sagan and Sarnow 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sagan and Sarnow 2013)
  • Three authors: (Depine, Andronicos, and Phipps-Morgan 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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