How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nottebohm, Fernando. 2014. “Peter Marler (1928-2014).” Nature 512 (7515): 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jellinek, A. Mark, and David Bercovici. 2011. “Seismic Tremors and Magma Wagging during Explosive Volcanism.” Nature 470 (7335): 522–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill, Michael S., Peter B. Hitchcock, and Ruti Pongtavornpinyo. 2006. “A Linear Homocatenated Compound Containing Six Indium Centers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5769): 1904–1907.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Giacomini, Kathleen M., Ronald M. Krauss, Dan M. Roden, Michel Eichelbaum, Michael R. Hayden, and Yusuke Nakamura. 2007. “When Good Drugs Go Bad.” Nature 446 (7139): 975–977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dincer, Ibrahim, Marc A. Rosen, and Pouria Ahmadi. 2017. Optimization of Energy Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Blottner, Dieter. 2015. The NeuroMuscular System: From Earth to Space Life Science: Neuromuscular Cell Signalling in Disuse and Exercise. Edited by Michele Salanova. SpringerBriefs in Space Life Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lippitt, Christopher D., Douglas A. Stow, Sory Toure, and Milo Vejraska. 2013. “Delineation and Classification of Urban Neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana, from Quickbird Imagery: Manual vs. Semi-Automated Approaches.” In Spatial Inequalities: Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana, edited by John R. Weeks, Allan G. Hill, and Justin Stoler, 57–71. GeoJournal Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Scientists Create Biodegradable Computer Chips.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Continuing Educational Programs for Scientists and Engineers. PSAD-78-75. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, Benjamin. 2010. “From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, Tyler. 2014. “Gauging the Gender Gap, Present and Future.” New York Times, September 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nottebohm 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nottebohm 2014; Jellinek and Bercovici 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jellinek and Bercovici 2011)
  • Three authors: (Hill, Hitchcock, and Pongtavornpinyo 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Giacomini et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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