How to format your references using the Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kilpatrick, A. Marm. 2011. “Globalization, Land Use, and the Invasion of West Nile Virus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6054): 323–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nordborg, Magnus, and Detlef Weigel. 2008. “Next-Generation Genetics in Plants.” Nature 456 (7223): 720–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, Shichun, Cin-Ty A. Lee, and Qing-Zhu Yin. 2014. “Missing Lead and High 3He/4He in Ancient Sulfides Associated with Continental Crust Formation.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5314.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Jiaxu, Toshinori Kinoshita, Sona Pandey, Carl K-Y Ng, Steven P. Gygi, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki, and Sarah M. Assmann. 2002. “Modulation of an RNA-Binding Protein by Abscisic-Acid-Activated Protein Kinase.” Nature 418 (6899): 793–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, Steven M. 2009. Controllership. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Caldwell, Sheri. 2009. Using Your Emotional Intelligence to Develop Others. Edited by Linda Gravett. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Imamura, Toshiyuki, Susumu Yamada, and Masahiko Machida. 2006. “Over 10 TFLOPS Computation for a Huge Sparse Eigensolver on the Earth Simulator.” In High Performance Computing on Vector Systems: Proceedings of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart, March 2005, edited by Michael Resch, Thomas Bönisch, Katharina Benkert, Wolfgang Bez, Toshiyuki Furui, and Yoshiki Seo, 51–61. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “They May Be Loners, But Unpopular Marmots Protect the Colony.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Highway Bridges: Linking Funding to Conditions May Help Demonstrate Impact of Federal Investment. GAO-16-779. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rafibakhsh, Nima. 2013. “Industrial Applications of Microsoft Xbox Kinect Sensor.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “Do More Guns Really Mean Fewer Gun Murders? Not Exactly.” New York Times, October 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kilpatrick 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kilpatrick 2011; Nordborg and Weigel 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nordborg and Weigel 2008)
  • Three authors: (Huang, Lee, and Yin 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInnovation in Language Learning and Teaching
AbbreviationInnov. Lang. Learn. Teach.
ISSN (print)1750-1229
ISSN (online)1750-1237
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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