How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. And the winner is: not science. Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ridley R, Toure Y. Winning the drugs war. Nature. 2004 Aug 19;430(7002):942–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doncaster CP, Pound GE, Cox SJ. The ecological cost of sex. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):281–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fischer TP, Burnard P, Marty B, Hilton DR, Füri E, Palhol F, et al. Upper-mantle volatile chemistry at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano and the origin of carbonatites. Nature. 2009 May 7;459(7243):77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamperti JW. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Itterheim S. Learn cocos2D 2. Löw A, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012. XXVI, 544 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Granov A, Tiutin L, Schwarz T. Breast Cancer. In: Granov A, Tiutin L, Schwarz T, editors. Positron Emission Tomography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. All The Water In This Lake Vanishes Down a Hole Every Summer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: AA-96-28(4).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown CP. Range vs. register: An important distinction in choral repertoire for the adolescent male [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rappeport A. Measure to Loosen Dodd-Frank Banking Rules Passes the House. New York Times. 2017 Jun 8;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles