How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Glynn I. An intriguing door. Nature. 2001 Oct 18;413(6857):683.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Richardson D, Sawers G. Structural biology. PMF through the redox loop. Science. 2002 Mar 8;295(5561):1842–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Esvelt KM, Carlson JC, Liu DR. A system for the continuous directed evolution of biomolecules. Nature. 2011 Apr 28;472(7344):499–503.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Hoffmeister KM, Josefsson EC, Isaac NA, Clausen H, Hartwig JH, Stossel TP. Glycosylation restores survival of chilled blood platelets. Science. 2003 Sep 12;301(5639):1531–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dosil J. Eating Disorders in Athletes. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Tiliouine H, Estes RJ, editors. The State of Social Progress of Islamic Societies: Social, Economic, Political, and Ideological Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XLV, 682 p. 129 illus., 74 illus. in color. (International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Acheson K, Vollmers C. Teaching Promotion and Integrated Marketing Communications. In: Wilson EJ, Black WC, editors. Proceedings of the 1994 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 13–13. (Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Why The Deep Space Atomic Clock Is Key For Future Space Exploration [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/why-the-deep-space-atomic-clock-is-key-for-future-space-exploration/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Feb. Report No.: RCED-99-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Berkowitz AE. Finding a Place for “Cacega Ayuwipi” within the Structure of American Indian Music and Dance Traditions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. In Mets’ Lost Season, Collins Defends His Decisions. New York Times. 2017 Sep 29;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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