How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fei Y. Geophysics. Melting Earth’s core. Science. 2013 Apr 26;340(6131):442–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lipson H, Pollack JB. Automatic design and manufacture of robotic lifeforms. Nature. 2000 Aug 31;406(6799):974–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norouzzadeh P, Myles CW, Vashaee D. Prediction of giant thermoelectric power factor in type-VIII clathrate Si46. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 13;4:7028.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang W, Choi DS, Nguyen YH, Chang J, Qin L. Studying cancer stem cell dynamics on PDMS surfaces for microfluidics device design. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kukushkin A. Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Varin RA. Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage. Czujko T, Wronski ZS, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. X, 338 p. (Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy).
A chapter in an edited book
Fukumoto S, Yamada A, Iwamoto T, Nakamura T. Dental epithelium proliferation and differentiation regulated by ameloblastin. In: Sasano T, Suzuki O, editors. Interface Oral Health Science 2009. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2010. p. 33–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Highly Efficient And Ultra-Cheap Perovskite Solar Cells Announced [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: Additional Actions Could Strengthen the Security of Intermodal Transportation Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 May. Report No.: GAO-10-435R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck ES. Waging war with words: Idealized gender and Iberian chivalry [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. CHILDREN’S BOOKS. New York Times. 2003 Mar 9;724.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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