How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P. Life’s lessons in design. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):413–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koechlin E, Hyafil A. Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human decision-making. Science. 2007 Oct 26;318(5850):594–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chiappe LM, Salgado L, Coria RA. Embryonic skulls of titanosaur sauropod dinosaurs. Science. 2001 Sep 28;293(5539):2444–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Black GJ, Campbell DB, Carter LM, Ostro SJ. Radar detection of Iapetus. Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBerardinis LJ, Baum JS, First MW, Gatwood GT, Seth AK. Guidelines for Laboratory Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Wichert R, Eberhardt B, editors. Ambient Assisted Living: 4. AAL-Kongress 2011, Berlin, Germany, January 25–26, 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XI, 318 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Jani AMM, Yazid H, Habiballah AS, Mahmud AH, Losic D. Soft and Hard Surface Manipulation of Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). In: Losic D, Santos A, editors. Nanoporous Alumina: Fabrication, Structure, Properties and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 155–84. (Springer Series in Materials Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Can’t Figure Out Why This Bird Flies Across the Entire Pacific Ocean And Back [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug Control: Status Report on Counterdrug Technology Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-93-104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scheepers EM. Psychotherapists’ use of outcome measures in psychotherapy practice: Differences related to academic background [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. At a Village Voice Reunion, They Laughed. They Cried. They Groused. New York Times. 2017 Sep 10;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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