How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondo S. Developmental biology. Self-organizing somites. Science. 2014 Feb 14;343(6172):736–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eccleston A, Skipper M. Transcribing the genome. Nature. 2009 Sep 10;461(7261):185.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cziczo DJ, Thomson DS, Murphy DM. Ablation, flux, and atmospheric implications of meteors inferred from stratospheric aerosol. Science. 2001 Mar 2;291(5509):1772–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pray-Grant MG, Daniel JA, Schieltz D, Yates JR 3rd, Grant PA. Chd1 chromodomain links histone H3 methylation with SAGA- and SLIK-dependent acetylation. Nature. 2005 Jan 27;433(7024):434–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fant KM. Logically Determined Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Monga M, editor. Ureteroscopy: Indications, Instrumentation & Technique. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013. XXII, 470 p. 158 illus., 100 illus. in color. (Current Clinical Urology).
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa M, Yano H, Nishizaki I. Stochastic Linear Programming. In: Yano H, Nishizaki I, editors. Linear and Multiobjective Programming with Fuzzy Stochastic Extensions. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013. p. 149–96. (International Series in Operations Research & Management Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Clovis People Were Ancestors to Nearly All Native Americans. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alleged Violations of the Kentucky State Plan for Vocational Education and Federal Regulations on Vocational Education by the Kentucky Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Mar. Report No.: B-164031(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts S. The Other Side of Adversity: Surviving a Destructive Leader Experience [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Parallel Coaching Paths, Decades Apart. New York Times. 2011 Jan 23;SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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