How to format your references using the Clinical and Investigative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Investigative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore. Science. 2008 Oct 24;322(5901):531.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Morel FMM, Price NM. The biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the oceans. Science. 2003 May 9;300(5621):944–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lee H, Cheng Y-C, Fleming GR. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence. Science. 2007 Jun 8;316(5830):1462–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yokoyama Y, Esat TM, Thompson WG, Thomas AL, Webster JM, Miyairi Y, et al. Rapid glaciation and a two-step sea level plunge into the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature. 2018 Jul;559(7715):603–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lovejoy DA. Neuroendocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Veves A, Malik RA, editors. Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Management. Second Edition. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2007. XII, 520 p. (Clinical Diabetes).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hartline J, Sharp A. An Incremental Model for Combinatorial Maximization Problems. In: Àlvarez C, Serna M, editors. Experimental Algorithms: 5th International Workshop, WEA 2006, Cala Galdana, Menorca, Spain, May 24-27, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 36–48. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Investigative Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D. These Doomsday Shelters For The 1% Make Up The Largest Private Bunker Community On Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/these-doomsday-shelters-for-the-1-make-up-the-largest-private-bunker-community-on-earth/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Drug Control: Status Report on Counterdrug Technology Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-93-104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Faynblut V. College access: A case study of Latino charter school students and their K-16 pathways [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Stewart JB. Case Study in Chaos: Management Experts Grade a Trump White House. New York Times. 2017 Feb 2;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Investigative Medicine
AbbreviationClin. Invest. Med.
ISSN (print)0147-958X
ISSN (online)1488-2353
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles