How to format your references using the Injury Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Paulson T. Epidemiology: A mortal foe. Nature 2013;502:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gardner KH, Correa F. Plant science. How plants see the invisible. Science 2012;335:1451–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Ferrari G, Stornaiuolo A, Mavilio F. Failure to correct murine muscular dystrophy. Nature 2001;411:1014–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Pereira M, Pfisterer U, Rylander D, Torper O, Lau S, Lundblad M, et al. Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that survive transplantation into the adult rat brain. Sci Rep 2014;4:6330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Geng H. Data Center Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Zajda J, editor. Decentralisation and Privatisation in Education: The Role of the State. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Monnier P. Endoscopic Assessment of the Compromised Paediatric Airway. In: Monnier P, editor. Pediatric Airway Surgery: Management of Laryngotracheal Stenosis in Infants and Children, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Extra.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. The Most Distant Galaxy Has Been Discovered. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/space/most-distant-galaxy-has-been-discovered/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Legality of the Reported Use by the Energy Research and Development Administration of Certain Fossil Energy Funds for Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Bryant TL. The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Detainees at Guantánamo Fight Further Appeal Delay. New York Times 2008:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Extra
ISSN (print)1572-3461
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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