How to format your references using the Information Technology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patterson DJ (2009) Ecology. Seeing the big picture on microbe distribution. Science 325:1506–1507
A journal article with 2 authors
Ponce de León MS, Zollikofer CP (2001) Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity. Nature 412:534–538
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson DG, Burdick JA, Langer R (2004) Materials science. Smart biomaterials. Science 305:1923–1924
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim J-H, Ko Y-H, Gong S-H, et al (2013) Ultrafast single photon emitting quantum photonic structures based on a nano-obelisk. Sci Rep 3:2150

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Randall JF (2006) Designing Indoor Solar Products. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Talati JJ, Tiselius H-G, Albala DM, Ye Z (2012) Urolithiasis: Basic Science and Clinical Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Anzböck R, Dustdar S (2005) Semi-automatic Generation of Web Services and BPEL Processes – A Model-Driven Approach. In: Aalst WMP van der, Benatallah B, Casati F, Curbera F (eds) Business Process Management: 3rd International Conference, BPM 2005, Nancy, France, September 5-8, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 64–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology and Management.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Why so many domesticated mammals have floppy ears. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Explosives Detection Canines: TSA Has Taken Steps to Analyze Canine Team Data and Assess the Effectiveness of Passenger Screening Canines. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen TH (2015) Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Mets’ Syndergaard Keeps Hitting the Gas. Just How Fast Can He Go? New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology and Management
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Manag.
ISSN (print)1385-951X
ISSN (online)1573-7667
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Information Systems

Other styles