How to format your references using the Information Technology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tesche C (2000) QUANTUM MECHANICS: Enhanced: Schrodinger’s Cat Is Out of the Hat. Science 290:720–721
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti PG, Sarupria S (2009) Chemistry. Hydrate molecular ballet. Science 326:1070–1071
A journal article with 3 authors
McGinty RK, Henrici RC, Tan S (2014) Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome. Nature 514:591–596
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alloing M, Lemaître A, Galopin E, Dubin F (2013) Optically programmable excitonic traps. Sci Rep 3:1578

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Institute of Timber Constr (2012) Timber Construction Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Deeg HJ (2006) Hematologic Malignancies: Myelodysplastic Syndromes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Frise CJ, MacCallum PK, Mackillop LH, Nelson-Piercy C (2015) Systemic Thromboembolism in Pregnancy: Thromboprophylaxis. In: Cohen H, O’Brien P (eds) Disorders of Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Pregnancy: A Guide to Management. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology and Management.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) How To Run A Marathon (Hint: It’s All In The Mind). In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) OFPP Followup to Federal Supply Schedule Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaddy M (2008) An empirical assessment of the crosscutting concern problem. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2008) Start-Up Church Calls Diner Home. New York Times WE2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology and Management
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Manag.
ISSN (print)1385-951X
ISSN (online)1573-7667
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Information Systems

Other styles