How to format your references using the Information Technology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Technology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gu L (2003) Comment on “Climate and management contributions to recent trends in U.S. agricultural yields.” Science 300:1505; author reply 1505
A journal article with 2 authors
Pizzarello S, Weber AL (2004) Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts. Science 303:1151
A journal article with 3 authors
Croon MB, Hillier JK, Sclater JG (2011) Comment on “Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates.” Science 331:1011; author reply 1011
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Park H, Chang S, Smith M, et al (2013) Interface engineering of graphene for universal applications as both anode and cathode in organic photovoltaics. Sci Rep 3:1581

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durbin PA, Reif BAP (2010) Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sarma M (2014) Phoneme-Based Speech Segmentation using Hybrid Soft Computing Framework. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Sorensen KA, Mohankumar S, Thangaraj SR (2016) Physical, Mechanical and Cultural Control of Vegetable Insects. In: Muniappan R, Heinrichs EA (eds) Integrated Pest Management of Tropical Vegetable Crops. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 131–148

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Technology and Management.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) New Treatment Shown To Dramatically Boost Survival Rates In Prostate Cancer Patients. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Gulf War Illnesses: Preliminary Assessment of DOD Plume Modeling for U.S. Troops’ Exposure to Chemical Agents. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasar K (2009) Electrified voices: Media technology and discourse in modern Japan. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Malkin E, Minder R (2016) A Former Mexican Governor Is Arrested, but Not by His Own Country. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Technology and Management
AbbreviationInf. Technol. Manag.
ISSN (print)1385-951X
ISSN (online)1573-7667
ScopeBusiness, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
Information Systems

Other styles