How to format your references using the Cerebral Cortex citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebral Cortex. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolstenholme AJ. 2012. Evolution. Surviving in a toxic world. Science. 335:545–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Call J, Carpenter M. 2009. Behavior. Monkeys like mimics. Science. 325:824–825.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eberhardt MV, Lee CY, Liu RH. 2000. Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature. 405:903–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tzedakis PC, Hughen KA, Cacho I, Harvati K. 2007. Placing late Neanderthals in a climatic context. Nature. 449:206–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander CF. 2013. Where is American Literature? Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.
An edited book
Koivurova T, Keskitalo ECH, Bankes N (Eds.). 2009. Climate Governance in the Arctic, Environment & Policy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Neuhaus F. 2011. timeSpace. In: Neuhaus F, editor. Studies in Temporal Urbanism: The urbanTick Experiment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 27–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebral Cortex.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Aircrafts That Can Be Controlled By Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. The Treasury Financial Communications System ( No. 129307). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greenfield D. 2017. Beyond Super Heroes and Talking Animals: Social Justice in Graphic Novels in Education (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. 2010. The Shopping Urge Can Hit Anytime. New York Times. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wolstenholme 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Call and Carpenter 2009; Wolstenholme 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Call and Carpenter 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Tzedakis et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebral Cortex
AbbreviationCereb. Cortex
ISSN (print)1047-3211
ISSN (online)1460-2199
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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