How to format your references using the Cerebral Cortex citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebral Cortex. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dearing A. 2007. Enabling Europe to innovate. Science. 315:344–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boes M, Ploegh HL. 2004. Translating cell biology in vitro to immunity in vivo. Nature. 430:264–271.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cira NJ, Benusiglio A, Prakash M. 2015. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets. Nature. 519:446–450.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mao C, Solis DJ, Reiss BD, Kottmann ST, Sweeney RY, Hayhurst A, Georgiou G, Iverson B, Belcher AM. 2004. Virus-based toolkit for the directed synthesis of magnetic and semiconducting nanowires. Science. 303:213–217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wildi O. 2010. Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Fang Y. 2008. Fuzzy Portfolio Optimization: Theory and Methods, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Meinel FG, Zhang LJ, Schoepf UJ. 2015. Dual Energy CT in Chest Tumors. In: De Cecco CN,, Laghi A,, Schoepf UJ,, Meinel FG, editors. Dual Energy CT in Oncology. Cham: Springer International Publishing. p. 41–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebral Cortex.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. Birds Take Turns at the Head of Their Flying V [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. FTS 2000: An Overview of the Federal Government’s New Telecommunications System ( No. IMTEC-90-17FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naqvi SZ. 2017. Around the world in 15 bites: Applied perspectives on learning about food (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. 2016. Treasury Dept. Rejects Plan to Cut Benefits for Teamsters. New York Times. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dearing 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Boes and Ploegh 2004; Dearing 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boes and Ploegh 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebral Cortex
AbbreviationCereb. Cortex
ISSN (print)1047-3211
ISSN (online)1460-2199
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles