How to format your references using the Acta Neurochirurgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Neurochirurgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sweatt JD (2010) Neuroscience. Epigenetics and cognitive aging. Science 328(5979):701–702
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Flowers RM, Farley KA (2013) Response to Comments on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon.” Science 340(6129):143
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Lee KJ, Dietrich P, Jessell TM (2000) Genetic ablation reveals that the roof plate is essential for dorsal interneuron specification. Nature 403(6771):734–740
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Sambrano GR, Weiss EJ, Zheng YW, Huang W, Coughlin SR (2001) Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis. Nature 413(6851):74–78

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Knudsen S (2005) A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Croudace IW, Rothwell RG (eds) (2015) Micro-XRF Studies of Sediment Cores: Applications of a non-destructive tool for the environmental sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Broszat M, Grohmann E (2014) Horizontal Gene Transfer in Planktonic and Biofilm Modes. In: Rumbaugh KP, Ahmad I (eds) Antibiofilm Agents: From Diagnosis to Treatment and Prevention. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Neurochirurgica.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2016) Klinefelter’s Syndrome: Being Unable To Produce Testosterone Has Serious Implications For Men. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/klinefelter-s-syndrome-being-unable-produce-testosterone-has-serious/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2002) School Finance: Per-Pupil Spending Differences between Selected Inner City and Suburban Schools Varied by Metropolitan Area. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Daly KM (2008) Cinema 3.0: How digital and computer technologies are changing cinema. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly C (2011) A No. 2 Theater Company Grabs the State Spotlight. New York Times A25B

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 5, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Neurochirurgica
AbbreviationActa Neurochir. (Wien)
ISSN (print)0001-6268
ISSN (online)0942-0940
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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