How to format your references using the Acta Neurochirurgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Neurochirurgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D’Emic MD (2015) Comment on “Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs.” Science 348(6238):982
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyduk AF, Nocera DG (2001) Hydrogen produced from hydrohalic acid solutions by a two-electron mixed-valence photocatalyst. Science 293(5535):1639–1641
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershenfeld N, Samouhos S, Nordman B (2010) Engineering. Intelligent infrastructure for energy efficiency. Science 327(5969):1086–1088
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mao D, Liu X, Sun Z, Lu H, Han D, Wang G, Wang F (2013) Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser. Sci Rep 3:3223

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silverstein D, Samuel P, Decarlo N (2008) The Innovator’s Toolkit. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Maciocco G (2009) People and Space: New Forms of Interaction in the City Project, 1st ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kern ML, Adler A, Waters LE, White MA (2015) Measuring Whole-School Well-being in Students and Staff. In: White MA, Murray AS (eds) Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-being in Schools. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 65–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Neurochirurgica.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) This is not Yellow. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) National Airspace System: FAA Has Implemented Some Free Flight Initiatives, but Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck ES (2008) Waging war with words: Idealized gender and Iberian chivalry. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Awkward Moments in Video Politics. New York Times 19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 5, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Neurochirurgica
AbbreviationActa Neurochir. (Wien)
ISSN (print)0001-6268
ISSN (online)0942-0940
ScopeClinical Neurology

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