How to format your references using the Acta Neurochirurgica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Neurochirurgica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Koen D (2004) Introductory matters. Nature 429(6991):584
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Shneiderman B, Preece J (2007) Public health. 911.gov. Science 315(5814):944
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Berton O, Hahn C-G, Thase ME (2012) Are we getting closer to valid translational models for major depression? Science 338(6103):75–79
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Sahin NT, Pinker S, Cash SS, Schomer D, Halgren E (2009) Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science 326(5951):445–449

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ryan TP (2007) Modern Engineering Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Prodan I (2016) Mixed-Integer Representations in Control Design: Mathematical Foundations and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bridges AS, Noss AJ (2011) Behavior and Activity Patterns. In: O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (eds) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 57–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Neurochirurgica.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2015) Men And Women Biased About Studies Of STEM Gender Bias – In Opposite Directions. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/men-and-women-biased-about-studies-stem-gender-bias-opposite-directions/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1997) Student Loans: Potential Effects of Raising Statutory Audit Threshold. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Kessler C (2013) Elements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gladstone R, Specia M (2017) At the U.N., Pressure Builds on Myanmar Over a ‘Human Rights Nightmare.’ New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [4, 5, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Neurochirurgica
AbbreviationActa Neurochir. (Wien)
ISSN (print)0001-6268
ISSN (online)0942-0940
ScopeClinical Neurology
Surgery

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