How to format your references using the Information Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Güntürkün O (2003) Human behaviour: Adult persistence of head-turning asymmetry. Nature 421(6924):711.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen H, Vogelgesang R (2009) Physics. Glimpsing the weak magnetic field of light. Science 326(5952):529–530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norell MA, Makovicky PJ, Currie PJ (2001) Palaeontology. The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Nature 412(6850):873–874.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Leishman AJ, Naidenko OV, Attinger A, Koning F, Lena CJ, Xiong Y, Chang HC, Reinherz E, Kronenberg M, Cheroutre H (2001) T cell responses modulated through interaction between CD8alphaalpha and the nonclassical MHC class I molecule, TL. Science 294(5548):1936–1939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nations S (2014) The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Takahashi K, Yoshikawa A, Sandhu A eds. (2007) Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Fundamental Properties and Modern Photonic and Electronic Devices (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Soto J, Campos I, Martínez-Máñez R (2013) Monitoring Wastewater Treatment Using Voltammetric Electronic Tongues. Mukhopadhyay SC, Mason A, eds. Smart Sensors for Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring. Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 65–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Turning Diamonds’ Defects Into Long-Term 3-D Data Storage. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Results of EDP Auditor Reader Survey on Microcomputers (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuschall A (2017) Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability. Doctoral dissertation. (Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu W, Singer JE (2017) To Immigrants Dollar Stores Are a Step Up. New York Times (September 13).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Güntürkün 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Giessen and Vogelgesang 2009, Güntürkün 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giessen and Vogelgesang 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Leishman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Research
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1047-7047
ISSN (online)1526-5536
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Library and Information Sciences

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