How to format your references using the Information Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCauley DJ (2006) Selling out on nature. Nature 443(7107):27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang HL, Lai TW (2014) Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples. Sci. Rep. 4:6588.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sang L, Coller HA, Roberts JM (2008) Control of the reversibility of cellular quiescence by the transcriptional repressor HES1. Science 321(5892):1095–1100.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yamamoto K, Sakata Y, Nohara Y, Takahashi Y, Tatsumi T (2003) Organic-inorganic hybrid zeolites containing organic frameworks. Science 300(5618):470–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodriguez J, Bonne D (2015) Stereoselective Multiple Bond-Forming Transformations in Organic Synthesis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Kogan K (2007) Supply Chain Games: Operations Management And Risk Valuation Tapiero CS, ed. (Springer US, Boston, MA).
A chapter in an edited book
Steigerwald J (2015) The Ethos of Critique in German Idealism. Padovani F, Richardson A, Tsou JY, eds. Objectivity in Science: New Perspectives from Science and Technology Studies. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. (Springer International Publishing, Cham), 79–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Analysis Of Sunspot History Challenges Climate Skeptics. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Manned Undersea Science and Technology Needs Focus and Direction (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ritter D (2008) The EU and conflict: Critically assessing the success of the ESDP and its impact in conflict areas. Doctoral dissertation. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) State Senators Confirm First Openly Gay Judge For New York’s Top Court. New York Times (June 21).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCauley 2006).
This sentence cites two references (McCauley 2006, Wang and Lai 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Lai 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Research
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1047-7047
ISSN (online)1526-5536
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles