How to format your references using the Information Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Khalil AM (2009) Journal club. A geneticist views two theories of X-chromosome inactivation in a broad context. Nature 458(7236):263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee JH, Paull TT (2005) ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science 308(5721):551–554.
A journal article with 3 authors
Butov LV, Gossard AC, Chemla DS (2002) Macroscopically ordered state in an exciton system. Nature 418(6899):751–754.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Knouse KW, deGruyter JN, Schmidt MA, Zheng B, Vantourout JC, Kingston C, Mercer SE, et al. (2018) Unlocking P(V): Reagents for chiral phosphorothioate synthesis. Science 361(6408):1234–1238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D (2007) TKO Sales! (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Kim TH, Adeli H, Grosky WI, Pissinou N, Shih TK, Rothwell EJ, Kang BH, Shin SJ eds. (2011) Multimedia, Computer Graphics and Broadcasting: International Conference, MulGraB 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings, Part I (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg).
A chapter in an edited book
Wilhelmsson D, Langhamer O (2014) The Influence of Fisheries Exclusion and Addition of Hard Substrata on Fish and Crustaceans. Shields MA, Payne AIL, eds. Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions. Humanity and the Sea. (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht), 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Two-Headed Snake Discovered in Turkey. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Places Program on Firmer Footing, but Progress Is Still Lagging (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao X (2006) Creative Learning for Intelligent Robots. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM (2013) As Cheese or Chocolate, Comfort Comes Melted. New York Times (December 29).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Khalil 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Khalil 2009, Lee and Paull 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Paull 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Knouse et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Research
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1047-7047
ISSN (online)1526-5536
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles