How to format your references using the Information Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelhardt B (2011) Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation. Science 334(6063):1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bang AG, Carpenter MK (2008) Development. Deconstructing pluripotency. Science 320(5872):58–59.
A journal article with 3 authors
Courchamp F, Woodroffe R, Roemer G (2003) Removing protected populations to save endangered species. Science 302(5650):1532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Karol KG, McCourt RM, Cimino MT, Delwiche CF (2001) The closest living relatives of land plants. Science 294(5550):2351–2353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuels J (2015) The Trader’s Pendulum (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Nijkamp FP, Parnham MJ eds. (2011) Principles of Immunopharmacology: 3rd revised and extended edition (Birkhäuser, Basel).
A chapter in an edited book
Kufleitner M (2006) Polynomials, Fragments of Temporal Logic and the Variety DA over Traces. Ibarra OH, Dang Z, eds. Developments in Language Theory: 10th International Conference, DLT 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, June 26-29, 2006. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems Research.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Can Handshake Strength Really Predict Your Mortality Risk? IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogg JH (2014) An assessment of social vulnerability in Yuba County, California. Doctoral dissertation. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) With Trade Deadline Near, The Mets Joke and Lose. New York Times (July 30).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelhardt 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bang and Carpenter 2008, Engelhardt 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bang and Carpenter 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Karol et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems Research
AbbreviationInf. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1047-7047
ISSN (online)1526-5536
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles