How to format your references using the Frontiers in Genitourinary Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Genitourinary Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howard, K. (2003). San Diego. Nature 426, 689.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gantz, V. M., and Bier, E. (2015). Genome editing. The mutagenic chain reaction: a method for converting heterozygous to homozygous mutations. Science 348, 442–444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden, J. F., Svenning, J. C., and Wright, S. J. (2002). Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science 295, 636–637.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Almaas, E., Kovács, B., Vicsek, T., Oltvai, Z. N., and Barabási, A.-L. (2004). Global organization of metabolic fluxes in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Nature 427, 839–843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu, M. (2005). Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Goldsmith, W. (2014). Bioengineering Case Studies: Sustainable Stream Bank and Slope Stabilization. , eds. D. Gray and J. McCullah New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, S., Yang, G., Xu, J., and Li, X. (2013). “SCH-EGA: An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm for the Frequency Assignment Problem,” in Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 14th International Conference, EANN 2013, Halkidiki, Greece, September 13-16, 2013 Proceedings, Part I Communications in Computer and Information Science., eds. L. Iliadis, H. Papadopoulos, and C. Jayne (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 32–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Genitourinary Oncology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Virgin Birth Confirmed in World’s Longest Snake Species. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by GAO-04-394G). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tercero, N. (2010). Characterization and application of morpholino monolayers in nucleic acid diagnostics.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017). Drake and Ed Sheeran Top the Chart, Again. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howard, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Howard, 2003; Gantz and Bier, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gantz and Bier, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Almaas et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Genitourinary Oncology
AbbreviationFront. Oncol.
ISSN (online)2234-943X
ScopeCancer Research

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