How to format your references using the Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Powell, Glittering prizes, Nature. 428 (2004) 676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.L. Anderson, J. Winawer, Image segmentation and lightness perception, Nature. 434 (2005) 79–83.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Halevy, S.E. Peters, W.W. Fischer, Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle, Science. 337 (2012) 331–334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.J. Steger, E.S. Haswell, A.L. Miller, S.R. Wente, E.K. O’Shea, Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates, Science. 299 (2003) 114–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2007.
An edited book
M.H. Musani, Clinical Pearls in Diagnostic Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Leucker, Teaching Runtime Verification, in: S. Khurshid, K. Sen (Eds.), Runtime Verification: Second International Conference, RV 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, September 27-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 34–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch Live Feed As Asteroid Approaches Closer Than The Moon, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety Hazards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Wilday, Soulmaking within the destructive side of God seeing through monotheism’s holy warrior 9/11 to prehistory, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes, New York Times. (2001) 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Systems
AbbreviationInf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0306-4379
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems

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