How to format your references using the Information Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Elgersma, Neurodevelopmental disease: A molecular tightrope, Nature. 526 (2015) 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.G. Silver, M.D. Behn, Intermittent plate tectonics?, Science. 319 (2008) 85–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Rosenthal, B.K. Linsley, D.W. Oppo, Pacific Ocean heat content during the past 10,000 years, Science. 342 (2013) 617–621.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.N. Brown, S. Chen, Z. Han, C.-H. Lu, X. Tan, X.-J. Zhang, L. Ding, A. Lopez-Cruz, D. Saur, S.A. Anderson, K. Huang, S.-H. Shi, Clonal production and organization of inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex, Science. 334 (2011) 480–486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacRoberts, MacRoberts on Scottish Construction Contracts, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
V.G. Prieto, ed., Precision Molecular Pathology of Dermatologic Diseases, Springer, New York, NY, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Nevshupa, K. Hiratsuka, Luminescence of Triboplasma: Origin, Features, and Behavior, in: D.O. Olawale, O.O.I. Okoli, R.S. Fontenot, W.A. Hollerman (Eds.), Triboluminescence: Theory, Synthesis, and Application, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 65–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Dolphins Use Sponges To Access Novel Food Sources, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telephone Communications: Controlling Cross-Subsidy Between Regulated and Competitive Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Shaw, The influence of organizational culture on employee attitudes towards information security policy, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Kendrick Lamar Returns to No. 1, New York Times. (2017) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Sciences
AbbreviationInf. Sci. (Ny)
ISSN (print)0020-0255
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems and Management
Control and Systems Engineering
Theoretical Computer Science

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