How to format your references using the Information Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Mézard, Physics/computer science. Passing messages between disciplines, Science. 301 (2003) 1685–1686.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Woodroffe, S.M. Redpath, CONSERVATION. When the hunter becomes the hunted, Science. 348 (2015) 1312–1314.
A journal article with 3 authors
O.J. Rouxel, A. Bekker, K.J. Edwards, Iron isotope constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic ocean redox state, Science. 307 (2005) 1088–1091.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Yamamoto, M. Higuchi, S. Shiki, M. Tsuruta, H. Chiba, Stepwise radial complexation of imine groups in phenylazomethine dendrimers, Nature. 415 (2002) 509–511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.P. Ambachtsheer, The Future of Pension Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
S. Hong, O. Auciello, D. Wouters, eds., Emerging Non-Volatile Memories, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kohler, Lithuania: The Return of Opportunities, in: J. Jungmann, B. Sagemann (Eds.), Financial Crisis in Eastern Europe: Road to Recovery, Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2011: pp. 257–314.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Is Your Cat Lowering Your Grades?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Vocational Education: Information on the National Research Center’s Grant Award Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Ebrahimi, A recreational and vocational program for foster youth who reside in group homes: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Begins Return Of Soviet Documents, New York Times. (2002) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Sciences
AbbreviationInf. Sci. (Ny)
ISSN (print)0020-0255
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems and Management
Control and Systems Engineering
Theoretical Computer Science

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