How to format your references using the Information Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
T. Lang, Ebola: Embed research in outbreak response, Nature. 524 (2015) 29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
P. Carmeliet, R.K. Jain, Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases, Nature. 407 (2000) 249–257.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
B.J. Enquist, J.P. Haskell, B.H. Tiffney, General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities, Nature. 419 (2002) 610–613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
M.B. Elowitz, A.J. Levine, E.D. Siggia, P.S. Swain, Stochastic gene expression in a single cell, Science. 297 (2002) 1183–1186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
T.J. Anderson, The Value of Debt in Retirement, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
[1]
D. Kroening, Decision Procedures: An Algorithmic Point of View, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
M. Inglese, Y. Ge, R.I. Grossman, Magnetization Transfer Imaging, in: M. Filippi, M. Rovaris, G. Comi (Eds.), Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis, Springer, Milano, 2007: pp. 47–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Sciences.

Blog post
[1]
E. Andrew, The Smithsonian Introduces 3D Exhibits, IFLScience. (2013). https://www.iflscience.com/technology/smithsonian-introduces-3d-exhibits/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Is Making Progress But Important Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
E.F. Frey, Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
G. Vecsey, Rain Stopped, and Weirdness Began, New York Times. (2011) B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Sciences
AbbreviationInf. Sci. (Ny)
ISSN (print)0020-0255
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Software
Information Systems and Management
Control and Systems Engineering
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles