How to format your references using the Biofilm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofilm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vyazovskiy VV. Neuroscience. Mapping the birth of the sleep connectome. Science 2015;350:909–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nagib DA, MacMillan DWC. Trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes by means of photoredox catalysis. Nature 2011;480:224–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chin G, Marathe T, Roberts L. Population. Doom or vroom? Introduction. Science 2011;333:538–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang X, Harris RE, Bayston LJ, Ashe HL. Type IV collagens regulate BMP signalling in Drosophila. Nature 2008;455:72–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche T. Digital Electronics 3. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Tuunanen M, Windsperger J, Cliquet G, Hendrikse G, editors. New Developments in the Theory of Networks: Franchising, Alliances and Cooperatives. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang Z, Juarez JM, Dong W, Ji L, Duan H. Predictive Monitoring of Local Anomalies in Clinical Treatment Processes. In: Holmes JH, Bellazzi R, Sacchi L, Peek N, editors. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: 15th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2015, Pavia, Italy, June 17-20, 2015. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 25–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofilm.

Blog post
Andrew E. Alien-Looking Catfish Stumps Taxonomists. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Developing a Domestic Common Carrier Telecommunications Policy: What Are the Issues? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini F. Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. From Hockey 101 to a Ph.D. New York Times 2017:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofilm
ISSN (print)2590-2075

Other styles