How to format your references using the Biofilm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofilm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hajduk SL. Microbiology. Timing the sexual development of parasites. Science 2006;313:626–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee AJ, You L. Cell biology. Cells listen to their inner voice. Science 2014;343:624–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun X, Mariani FV, Martin GR. Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development. Nature 2002;418:501–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang F, Dukovic G, Brus LE, Heinz TF. The optical resonances in carbon nanotubes arise from excitons. Science 2005;308:838–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Anishchenko VS. Nonlinear Dynamics of Chaotic and Stochastic Systems: Tutorial and Modern Developments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Uludag AA, Erdaş A, Özcan Ş, Nalci D, Güler MO, Çetinkaya T, et al. Cr- and V-Substituted LiMn2O4 Cathode Electrode Materials for High-Rate Battery Applications. In: Dincer I, Colpan CO, Kizilkan O, Ezan MA, editors. Progress in Clean Energy, Volume 2: Novel Systems and Applications, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofilm.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mechanical Sea Snakes Could Be The Terrifying Future Of Underwater Exploration. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications for Native Americans on Tribal Lands. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valencia GM. A Phenomenological Study of Adults Earning a Graduate Degree after Age 60. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger S, Kanter J. Austria’s Rightward Lurch Reflects Europe’s New Anti-Immigration Leanings. New York Times 2017:A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofilm
ISSN (print)2590-2075

Other styles