How to format your references using the Biofilm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofilm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Bonetta L. Gene expression: an expression of interest. Nature 2006;440:1233–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Banfield JF, Young M. Microbiology. Variety--the splice of life--in microbial communities. Science 2009;326:1198–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gambardella A, Prezioso M, Cavallini M. Tunnel conductivity switching in a single nanoparticle-based nano floating gate memory. Sci Rep 2014;4:4196.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Worobey M, Telfer P, Souquière S, Hunter M, Coleman CA, Metzger MJ, et al. Island biogeography reveals the deep history of SIV. Science 2010;329:1487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Anderson D. TKO Hiring! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
[1]
Aubin J-P. Viability Theory: New Directions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Monahan TS. Microvascular Changes in the Diabetic Foot. In: Shrikhande GV, McKinsey JF, editors. Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: Diagnosis and Management, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012, p. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofilm.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Tooth-Derived Stem Cells Make Brain-Like Cells. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/tooth-derived-stem-cells-make-brain-cells/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Taken Steps to Determine That It Has Made Correct Medical Certification Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Newsome GA. Novel instrumentation and method development for a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Collins Will Move From Dugout to Front Office as Mets Turn to Other Questions. New York Times 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofilm
ISSN (print)2590-2075
Scope

Other styles