How to format your references using the Biofilm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofilm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abeles FF. Mathematics: Logic and Lewis Carroll. Nature 2015;527:302–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann JDR, Jackson PK. Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature 2002;416:850–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Delamarre L, Mellman I, Yadav M. Cancer immunotherapy. Neo approaches to cancer vaccines. Science 2015;348:760–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mueller SN, Hosiawa-Meagher KA, Konieczny BT, Sullivan BM, Bachmann MF, Locksley RM, et al. Regulation of homeostatic chemokine expression and cell trafficking during immune responses. Science 2007;317:670–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safonov VO. Using Aspect-Oriented Programming for Trustworthy Software Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Verger A, Novelli M, Mundy K, Eickelberg A, Grant L, Hilgersom S, et al., editors. Campaigning for “Education for All”: Histories, Strategies and Outcomes of Transnational Advocacy Coalitions in Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Hull C, Searle B. The Impact of Equalization on Service Delivery. In: Martinez-Vazquez J, Searle B, editors. Fiscal Equalization: Challenges in the Design of Intergovernmental Transfers, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 61–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofilm.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Scientists Have Broken A New Nuclear Fusion Record. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore AM. Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. With O’Connor Retirement and a New Chief Justice Comes an Awareness of Change. New York Times 2006:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofilm
ISSN (print)2590-2075

Other styles