How to format your references using the Information Economics and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Economics and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg, D.S., 2010. A two-year plan for US science. Nature 467, 781–782.
A journal article with 2 authors
Laurie, B., Doctorow, C., 2012. Computing: secure the internet. Nature 491, 325–326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Solanki, S.K., Schüssler, M., Fligge, M., 2000. Evolution of the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field since the Maunder minimum. Nature 408, 445–447.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Zhu, L., Wang, R., Miao, L., Jiang, H., Yuan, H., Ma, H., Chen, N., 2014. Genetic variants in let-7/Lin28 modulate the risk of oral cavity cancer in a Chinese Han population. Sci. Rep. 4, 7434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte, P., Corsi, P., 2017. Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Makkar, H.P.S., McSweeney, C.S. (Eds.), 2005. Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiran, M., 2014. A Methodology for Cloud Security Risks Management, in: Mahmood, Z. (Ed.), Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions, Computer Communications and Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 75–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Economics and Policy.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. The latest report from the IPCC: scientists are 95% certain that humans are the “dominant cause” of global warming since the 1950s [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Theft From Airline Passenger Baggage (No. OSI-94-18R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trantham, L.C., 2012. PSA surveillance following radical prostatectomy: What we know and why it matters (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich, N., 2012. Forever and Ever. New York Times MM32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg, 2010; Laurie and Doctorow, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Laurie and Doctorow, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Economics and Policy
AbbreviationInf. Econ. Pol.
ISSN (print)0167-6245
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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