How to format your references using the Information Economics and Policy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information Economics and Policy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. California dreaming: San Diego. Nature 422, 240–241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vafabakhsh, R., Ha, T., 2012. Extreme bendability of DNA less than 100 base pairs long revealed by single-molecule cyclization. Science 337, 1097–1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ribeiro, B., Perra, N., Baronchelli, A., 2013. Quantifying the effect of temporal resolution on time-varying networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 3006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, X., Mishchuk, D.O., Shah, J., Weimer, B.C., Slupsky, C.M., 2013. Cross-talk between E. coli strains and a human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line. Sci. Rep. 3, 3416.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, R., 2010. IT Audit, Control, and Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vymazal, J. (Ed.), 2015. The Role of Natural and Constructed Wetlands in Nutrient Cycling and Retention on the Landscape. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Shima, H., 2013. Geometry of Hessian Structures, in: Nielsen, F., Barbaresco, F. (Eds.), Geometric Science of Information: First International Conference, GSI 2013, Paris, France, August 28-30, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information Economics and Policy.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Believe It Or Not, This Isn’t A Snake. So What Is It? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. FTS 2000 Recompetition: Opportunity Exists for Better Prices (No. T-IMTEC-92-1). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holman, R., 2014. Music history pedagogy: Three approaches to teaching a one-semester music history survey course in accordance with the LEAP Initiative (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. Familiar Cycle of Partisan Combat Churns Again, and Trump Is Again at the Center. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Vafabakhsh and Ha, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vafabakhsh and Ha, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation Economics and Policy
AbbreviationInf. Econ. Pol.
ISSN (print)0167-6245
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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