How to format your references using the Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hansson, G.K. Medicine. LIGHT Hits the Liver. Science 2007, 316, 206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bonduriansky, R.; Brassil, C.E. Senescence: Rapid and Costly Ageing in Wild Male Flies. Nature 2002, 420, 377.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine, M.S.; Voss, D.; Coontz, R. A Robotic Future. Introduction to Special Issue. Science 2007, 318, 1083.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leitch, E.M.; Kovac, J.M.; Pryke, C.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Dragovan, M.; Reddall, B.; Sandberg, E.S. Measurement of Polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer. Nature 2002, 420, 763–771.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Y.; Wen, F.; Xiao, M. Quantum Control of Multi-Wave Mixing; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783527672363.
An edited book
Illuminating How Identities, Stereotypes and Inequalities Matter through Gender Studies; Farris, D.N., Davis, M.A., Compton, D.R., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; ISBN 9789401787178.
A chapter in an edited book
Tse, V.; Tse, V.; Collins, R.; Perkins, J.; So, K.; Medd, J. The Female Patient. In Multidisciplinary Care of Urinary Incontinence: A Handbook for Health Professionals; Chan, L., Tse, V., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 31–46 ISBN 9781447127710.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information.

Blog post
Hale, T. The Winners Of The 2016 Underwater Photography Competition Are Absolutely Amazing Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office H.R. 13343, a Bill To Establish a Department of Education, and for Other Purposes; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C. Use of Bibliotherapy as an Adjunctive Therapy with Bereaved Children: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Big Opening for J. Cole as Album Makes No. 1. New York Times 2016, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation
AbbreviationInformation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2078-2489
ScopeInformation Systems

Other styles