How to format your references using the Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole, A.A. ASTRONOMY: The Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud. Science 2000, 289, 1149–1150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sczepanski, J.T.; Joyce, G.F. A Cross-Chiral RNA Polymerase Ribozyme. Nature 2014, 515, 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shcherbina, A.Y.; Talley, L.D.; Rudnick, D.L. Direct Observations of North Pacific Ventilation: Brine Rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science 2003, 302, 1952–1955.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Heinrich, A.J.; Gupta, J.A.; Lutz, C.P.; Eigler, D.M. Single-Atom Spin-Flip Spectroscopy. Science 2004, 306, 466–469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama, K.P.; Hinnov, L.A. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, 2014; ISBN 9781118561294.
An edited book
Conflict and Multimodal Communication: Social Research and Machine Intelligence; D’Errico, F., Poggi, I., Vinciarelli, A., Vincze, L., Eds.; Computational Social Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319140803.
A chapter in an edited book
McPherson, M. Refugee Women, Education, and Self Authorship. In Migration, Diaspora and Identity: Cross-National Experiences; Tsolidis, G., Ed.; International Perspectives on Migration; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 77–93 ISBN 9789400772106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Ants Improve Network Design Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Higher Education: Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Programs and Related Trends; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, M.M. Sampling Frequency for Semi-Arid Streams and Rivers: Implications for National Parks in the Sonoran Desert Network. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Suffolk Seeks Ways to Ease School Taxes. New York Times 2007, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation
AbbreviationInformation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2078-2489
ScopeInformation Systems

Other styles