How to format your references using the Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. Agent Orange Health Investigation Stuck at Square One. Nature 2003, 422, 793.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ochman, H.; Davalos, L.M. The Nature and Dynamics of Bacterial Genomes. Science 2006, 311, 1730–1733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kulathinal, R.J.; Bettencourt, B.R.; Hartl, D.L. Compensated Deleterious Mutations in Insect Genomes. Science 2004, 306, 1553–1554.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, H.; Collado, M.; Villasante, A.; Strati, K.; Ortega, S.; Cañamero, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Serrano, M. The Ink4/Arf Locus Is a Barrier for IPS Cell Reprogramming. Nature 2009, 460, 1136–1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vettese, F. The Essential Retirement Guide; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119125426.
An edited book
Gutbrod, R. The Software Dilemma: Balancing Creativity and Control on the Path to Sustainable Software; Wiele, C., Ed.; Management for Professionals; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642272356.
A chapter in an edited book
Plinke, W.; Boison, D. Epilepsy. In Metabolism of Human Diseases: Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology; Lammert, E., Zeeb, M., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2014; pp. 23–27 ISBN 9783709107140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Camel Antibodies Guide Therapies To Tumors Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aircraft Certification: New FAA Approach Needed to Meet Challenges of Advanced Technology; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker, R.D. A Phenomenological Study of Millennial Students and Traditional Pedagogies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Megyn Kelly and Douglas Brunt. New York Times 2008, ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation
AbbreviationInformation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2078-2489
ScopeInformation Systems

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