How to format your references using the Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehn, J.-M. Toward self-organization and complex matter. Science 2002, 295, 2400–2403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parker, J.L.; Newstead, S. Molecular basis of nitrate uptake by the plant nitrate transporter NRT1.1. Nature 2014, 507, 68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeong, H.; Chang, A.M.; Melloch, M.R. The Kondo effect in an artificial quantum dot molecule. Science 2001, 293, 2221–2223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Murata, T.; Yamato, I.; Kakinuma, Y.; Leslie, A.G.W.; Walker, J.E. Structure of the rotor of the V-Type Na+-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae. Science 2005, 308, 654–659.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yin, G. Clinical Trial Design: Bayesian and Frequentist Adaptive Methods; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118183335.
An edited book
Encounters and Engagements between Economic and Cultural Geography; Warf, B., Ed.; GeoJournal Library; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; Vol. 104; ISBN 9789400729742.
A chapter in an edited book
Grefen, P.; Mehandjiev, N. Organization Aspect. In Dynamic Business Process Formation for Instant Virtual Enterprises; Mehandjiev, N., Grefen, P., Eds.; Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 39–47 ISBN 9781848826908.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information.

Blog post
Fang, J. Octomom Brooded Her Eggs for Record-Breaking Four-and-a-Half Years Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Industry: Potential Mergers and Acquisitions Driven by Financial and Competitive Pressures; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oliver, C.N. The relationship between length of kindergarten day and student literacy and math achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M. Saving Summer in a Jar. New York Times 2013, LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation
AbbreviationInformation (Basel)
ISSN (online)2078-2489
ScopeInformation Systems

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