How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bouwmeester, D., 2014. Quantum mechanics. The quantum nondemolition derby. Science 344, 1224–1226.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, G.M., Oshima, J., 2000. Lessons from human progeroid syndromes. Nature 408, 263–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuth, J.A., 3rd, Hill, H.G., Kletetschka, G., 2000. Determining the ages of comets from the fraction of crystalline dust. Nature 406, 275–276.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moldón, A., Malapeira, J., Gabrielli, N., Gogol, M., Gómez-Escoda, B., Ivanova, T., Seidel, C., Ayté, J., 2008. Promoter-driven splicing regulation in fission yeast. Nature 455, 997–1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leuf, B., 2006. The Semantic Web. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Krieglstein, G.K., Weinreb, R.N., Pleyer, U., Mondino, B. (Eds.), 2005. Uveitis and Immunological Disorders, Essentials in Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, H.-Y., 2012. Minimizing the Total Flow Time for Lot Streaming Flow Shop Using an Effective Discrete Harmony Search Algorithm, in: Huang, D.-S., Gan, Y., Gupta, P., Gromiha, M.M. (Eds.), Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 32–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. MIT’s New Robo-Cheetah Bounds Across Terrain Untethered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed To Prevent Future Disruption of Government Services (No. T-AIMD-97-51). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung, M., 2010. An integrated change model in project management (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. Recalling a Bomb on the Sidewalk, a Crowded Bar Across the Street. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bouwmeester, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bouwmeester, 2014; Martin and Oshima, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Oshima, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Moldón et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

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