How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2001. Asthma study death spurs inquiry. Nature 411, 873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.-Y., Bard, A.J., 2002. Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film. Nature 418, 162–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takano, A., Endo, T., Yoshihisa, T., 2005. tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast. Science 309, 140–142.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meyer, D.A., Kwiat, P.G., Hughes, R.J., Bucksbaum, P.H., Ahn, J., Weinacht, T.C., 2000. Does Rydberg state manipulation equal quantum computation? Science 289, 1431a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cleaver, H., Cawson, P., Gorin, S., Walker, S., 2009. Safeguarding Children. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Yor, M. (Ed.), 2008. Aspects of Mathematical Finance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Benjamin, R.A., 2015. The Challenge of Galactic Cartography: Lessons from the Milky Way, in: Freeman, K., Elmegreen, B., Block, D., Woolway, M. (Eds.), Lessons from the Local Group: A Conference in Honour of David Block and Bruce Elmegreen. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2017. One Delicious Combination Will Boost Attention Better Than Any Other Drink, Says Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Global Positioning System: Production Should Be Limited Until Receiver Reliability Problems Are Resolved (No. NSIAD-91-74). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, T.Y.-Y., 2010. Pulse designs on TR-MAS UWB (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Tennis Divided by Wild Cards for Sharapova. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Liu and Bard, 2002; Smaglik, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Bard, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Meyer et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

Other styles