How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mac Low, M.-M., 2013. From gas to stars over cosmic time. Science 340, 1229229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslov, S., Sneppen, K., 2002. Specificity and stability in topology of protein networks. Science 296, 910–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gur, I., Sawyer, K., Prasher, R., 2012. Engineering. Searching for a better thermal battery. Science 335, 1454–1455.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Q., Zhang, H., Ma, G., Liao, Y., Tang, X., Zhong, Z., 2014. Spectrum gaps of spin waves generated by interference in a uniform nanostripe waveguide. Sci. Rep. 4, 5917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei, A.R., 2014. Extended Finite Element Method. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Brøndsted Nielsen, S., Wyer, J.A. (Eds.), 2013. Photophysics of Ionic Biochromophores, Physical Chemistry in Action. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dörfler, P., Sick, M., Coutu, A., 2013. Cavitation-Related Phenomena, in: Sick, M., Coutu, A. (Eds.), Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting. Springer, London, pp. 129–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015. “Supermoon” Will Be Visible Tonight [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices (No. GAO-17-281). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelser, C.R., 2010. Interpretation of Aaron Copland’s Duo for Flute and Piano (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G., 2016. Feeding the Particle Physics Beast. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mac Low, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Mac Low, 2013; Maslov and Sneppen, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maslov and Sneppen, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

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