How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grotzinger, J.P., 2014. Exploring martian habitability. Habitability, taphonomy, and the search for organic carbon on Mars. Introduction. Science 343, 386–387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stott, P.A., Kettleborough, J.A., 2002. Origins and estimates of uncertainty in predictions of twenty-first century temperature rise. Nature 416, 723–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knill, E., Laflamme, R., Milburn, G.J., 2001. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409, 46–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mueller, C.A., Broz, P., Müller, S.A., Ringler, P., Erne-Brand, F., Sorg, I., Kuhn, M., Engel, A., Cornelis, G.R., 2005. The V-antigen of Yersinia forms a distinct structure at the tip of injectisome needles. Science 310, 674–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G., 2012. Geotechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Liong, M.-T. (Ed.), 2015. Beneficial Microorganisms in Food and Nutraceuticals, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Microbiology Monographs. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hagras, H., Wagner, C., 2011. Artefact Adaptation in Ambient Intelligent Environments, in: Minker, W., Heinroth, T. (Eds.), Next Generation Intelligent Environments: Ambient Adaptive Systems. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 127–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Why Is Italy Experiencing So Many Earthquakes At The Moment? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. ADP Planning: FDA’s Plans to Improve Processing of Medical Device and Drug Applications (No. IMTEC-89-58). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Megowan, G., 2012. A correlation study of emotional intelligence and behavioral style of bio-pharmaceutical industry District Sales Managers (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. A Paris Changed by Turmoil, a Century Ago. New York Times C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grotzinger, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Grotzinger, 2014; Stott and Kettleborough, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stott and Kettleborough, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mueller et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

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