How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bainbridge, W.S., 2003. Perceptions of science essay. Privacy and property on the Net: research questions. Science 302, 1686–1687.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nilsen, T.W., Graveley, B.R., 2010. Expansion of the eukaryotic proteome by alternative splicing. Nature 463, 457–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weeks, A.R., Marec, F., Breeuwer, J.A., 2001. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females. Science 292, 2479–2482.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuznicki, S.M., Bell, V.A., Nair, S., Hillhouse, H.W., Jacubinas, R.M., Braunbarth, C.M., Toby, B.H., Tsapatsis, M., 2001. A titanosilicate molecular sieve with adjustable pores for size-selective adsorption of molecules. Nature 412, 720–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hong, G., 2015. Causality in a Social World. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ewing, R., 2013. Measuring Urban Design: Metrics for Livable Places, Metropolitan Planning + Design. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee, C., Han, S., Choi, B., Song, J., 2006. Scalable Overlay Multicast Architecture, in: Min, G., Martino, B.D., Yang, L.T., Guo, M., Rünger, G. (Eds.), Frontiers of High Performance Computing and Networking – ISPA 2006 Workshops: ISPA 2006 International Workshops, FHPCN, XHPC, S-GRACE, GridGIS, HPC-GTP, PDCE, ParDMCom, WOMP, ISDF, and UPWN, Sorrento, Italy, December 4-7, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Wasps Use Facial Recognition To Identify Intruders [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. The Treasury Department and Its Bureaus Can Better Plan for and Control Computer Resources (No. GGD-82-9). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglen Bertrando, S.L., 2017. Rethinking Workplace Learning in the Digital World: A Case Study of Open Badges (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Insider Named President of Farmingdale College. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bainbridge, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bainbridge, 2003; Nilsen and Graveley, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nilsen and Graveley, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuznicki et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

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