How to format your references using the Applied Soil Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Soil Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J.M., 2015. The trouble with reference rot. Nature 521, 111–112.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, D., Lu, L., 2007. Anti-correlation of summer/winter monsoons? Nature 450, E7-8; discussion E8-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Binshtok, A.M., Bean, B.P., Woolf, C.J., 2007. Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers. Nature 449, 607–610.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fujisaki, J., Wu, J., Carlson, A.L., Silberstein, L., Putheti, P., Larocca, R., Gao, W., Saito, T.I., Lo Celso, C., Tsuyuzaki, H., Sato, T., Côté, D., Sykes, M., Strom, T.B., Scadden, D.T., Lin, C.P., 2011. In vivo imaging of Treg cells providing immune privilege to the haematopoietic stem-cell niche. Nature 474, 216–219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell, D.L., Arlow, P.C., 2015. Industrial Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schmitt, M.N., Arimatsu, L., McCormack, T. (Eds.), 2011. Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law - 2010, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, J.X., Ro, K., Yeh, M.W., 2015. Jan Wolff and Israel L. Chaikoff, in: Pasieka, J.L., Lee, J.A. (Eds.), Surgical Endocrinopathies: Clinical Management and the Founding Figures. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 21–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Soil Ecology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. We Now Have All The New Horizons Data From Pluto [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Three Studies at the Local Level (No. 147975). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spezia, K., 2015. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfers in Porous Media (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. To Your Health. New York Times NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Perkel, 2015; Zhang and Lu, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Lu, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Fujisaki et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Soil Ecology
AbbreviationAppl. Soil Ecol.
ISSN (print)0929-1393
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Soil Science

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