How to format your references using the Information and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keimer, B. (2001). Physics. Quasi-particles survive--for now. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5521), 1498–1499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sinervo, B., & Clobert, J. (2003). Morphs, dispersal behavior, genetic similarity, and the evolution of cooperation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5627), 1949–1951.
A journal article with 3 authors
Häkkinen, S., Rhines, P. B., & Worthen, D. L. (2011). Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6056), 655–659.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Oh, S. H., Kauffmann, Y., Scheu, C., Kaplan, W. D., & Rühle, M. (2005). Ordered liquid aluminum at the interface with sapphire. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5748), 661–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleckenstein, P., Tranum-Jensen, J., & Myschetzky, P. S. (2014). Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gorlewski, J. A., & Gorlewski, D. A. (Eds.). (2012). Making it Real: Case Stories for Secondary Teachers. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Favre, D. (2016). An International Treaty for Animal Welfare. In D. Cao & S. White (Eds.), Animal Law and Welfare - International Perspectives (pp. 87–106). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information and Organization.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 23). Half Of What Makes Up The Chromosomes In Your Cells Is Not Actually DNA. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Vulnerabilities of Telecommunications Systems to Unauthorized Use (LCD-77-102). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theodore, J. A. (2014). A Framework for Comparative Analysis of Gene Expressions and Mutations Linked to Cancer [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2000, June 19). On Way to Rout, Liberty Wins at the Free-Throw Line. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keimer, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Keimer, 2001; Sinervo & Clobert, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sinervo & Clobert, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Häkkinen et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Oh et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation and Organization
AbbreviationInf. Organ.
ISSN (print)1471-7727
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Management of Technology and Innovation
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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