How to format your references using the Information and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perry, J. W. (2009). Applied physics. Two beams squeeze feature sizes in optical lithography. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 892–893.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gosu, V., & Choi, S. (2014). Structural dynamic analysis of apo and ATP-bound IRAK4 kinase. Scientific Reports, 4, 5748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlseder, J., Smogorzewska, A., & de Lange, T. (2002). Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2446–2449.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vlad, A., Singh, N., Rolland, J., Melinte, S., Ajayan, P. M., & Gohy, J.-F. (2014). Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage. Scientific Reports, 4, 4315.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bishop, C. A. (2015). Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Beran, J., Feng, Y., & Hebbel, H. (Eds.). (2015). Empirical Economic and Financial Research: Theory, Methods and Practice (Vol. 48). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Moorman, A. V., & Harrison, C. J. (2011). Cytogenetics. In A. S. Advani & H. M. Lazarus (Eds.), Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: Biology and Treatment (pp. 61–75). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information and Organization.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 11). Watery Extrasolar Neptune Gives Astronomers Clues About Its Formation. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Connecticut’s Eligibility System: Improving System Availability (IMTEC-90-55). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ulaganathan, M. N. (2016). Building a volunteered geographic information system (VGIS): A mobile application for disaster management [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Collier; Sophia Collier is the president of the American Natural Beverage Corporation. (1988, June 12). STREET SMARTS. New York Times, 674.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perry, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gosu & Choi, 2014; Perry, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gosu & Choi, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Karlseder et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vlad et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation and Organization
AbbreviationInf. Organ.
ISSN (print)1471-7727
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Management of Technology and Innovation
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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