How to format your references using the Information and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T. (2010). Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature, 464(7286), 267–270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Niessing, J., & Friedrich, R. W. (2010). Olfactory pattern classification by discrete neuronal network states. Nature, 465(7294), 47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K., Fedosov, D. A., & Gompper, G. (2014). Margination of micro- and nano-particles in blood flow and its effect on drug delivery. Scientific Reports, 4, 4871.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Egas, M., Kats, R., van der Sar, X., Reuben, E., & Sabelis, M. W. (2013). Human cooperation by lethal group competition. Scientific Reports, 3, 1373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz, H. R., Muñoz, A. M., & Gacula, M. C., Jr. (2008). Viewpoints and Controversies in Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing. Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.
An edited book
Kitanidis, P. K., & McCarty, P. L. (Eds.). (2012). Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
AbuZeina, D., & Elshafei, M. (2012). Modeling of Arabic Cross-Word Pronunciation Variations. In M. Elshafei (Ed.), Cross-Word Modeling for Arabic Speech Recognition (pp. 47–58). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information and Organization.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, July 11). Nearby Supernovae Showered Earth With Radiation. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). [Comments on GAO Legal Opinion on DOT Authority to Requisition Vessels of U.S. Citizens] (B-229258.2). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J. L. (2012). Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, May 22). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, 1412.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Niessing & Friedrich, 2010; Xie, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Niessing & Friedrich, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Müller et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Egas et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation and Organization
AbbreviationInf. Organ.
ISSN (print)1471-7727
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Management of Technology and Innovation
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles