How to format your references using the Information and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Information and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Severinghaus, J. P. (2009). Atmospheric science. Monsoons and meltdowns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5950), 240–241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liao, L., & Cao, Z. (2014). Directional scaling symmetry of high-symmetry two-dimensional lattices. Scientific Reports, 4, 6193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ribeiro, B., Perra, N., & Baronchelli, A. (2013). Quantifying the effect of temporal resolution on time-varying networks. Scientific Reports, 3, 3006.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mitra, K., Schaffitzel, C., Shaikh, T., Tama, F., Jenni, S., Brooks, C. L., 3rd, Ban, N., & Frank, J. (2005). Structure of the E. coli protein-conducting channel bound to a translating ribosome. Nature, 438(7066), 318–324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phelan, J. (2013). Reading the American Novel 1920-2010. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Wohlleben, W., Spellig, T., & Müller-Tiemann, B. (Eds.). (2005). Biocombinatorial Approaches for Drug Finding (Vol. 51). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlovic, M., & Balint, B. (2013). Adult Stem Cells (the Concept of VSEL-Cell). In B. Balint (Ed.), Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering (pp. 21–22). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Information and Organization.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 6). Astronauts Submerge a GoPro Inside a Floating Ball of Water On The ISS. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Information Technology: SBA Needs to Strengthen Oversight of Its Loan Management and Accounting System Modernization (GAO-12-295). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edmonds, J. L. (2009). Mobility and population change in northeast Mississippi: An object-based seriation of projectile points as a relative paleodemographic indicator [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, May 13). Battle Over a Pillar to Nobel Yields No Statue, No Peace. New York Times, 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Severinghaus, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Liao & Cao, 2014; Severinghaus, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liao & Cao, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ribeiro et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mitra et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInformation and Organization
AbbreviationInf. Organ.
ISSN (print)1471-7727
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Management of Technology and Innovation
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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