How to format your references using the British Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Zakon H. Physiology. Heeding the hormonal call. Science 2004; 305: 349–350.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Svenning J-C, Condit R. Ecology. Biodiversity in a warmer world. Science 2008; 322: 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ruby E, Henderson B, McFall-Ngai M. Microbiology. We get by with a little help from our (little) friends. Science 2004; 303: 1305–1307.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Chandran V, Fronzes R, Duquerroy S, et al. Structure of the outer membrane complex of a type IV secretion system. Nature 2009; 462: 1011–1015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bojowald M. The Universe: A View from Classical and Quantum Gravity. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
1.
Shahid SA. United Arab Emirates Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Privat M, Warner R. Creating a Data Model. In: Warner R (ed) Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2011, pp. 107–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Pain.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 20 Awesome Science Experiments You Can Do Right Now At Home. IFLScience, https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/unfinished-20-fun-science-experiments-you-can-do-home/ (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Private, Profitmaking Firms’ Reports on Research and Development Contracts with the Environmental Protection Agency Can Be Evaluated Better. PSAD-77-161, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 31 October 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Munoz S. Mental Health Care for Foreign Born Latinos: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Grynbaum MM, Ember S. Who Will Inherit the Throne at Vanity Fair? New York Times, 15 September 2017, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Pain
AbbreviationBr. J. Pain
ISSN (print)2049-4637
ISSN (online)2049-4645
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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