How to format your references using the British Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow MM. Digital learning: look, then leap. Nature 2013; 499: 275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Damasio A, Meyer K. Behind the looking-glass. Nature 2008; 454: 167–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura K, Onda Y, Fukushima T. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baum JK, Myers RA, Kehler DG, et al. Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the Northwest Atlantic. Science 2003; 299: 389–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte GS. Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Andrienko N. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data: A Systematic Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Strydonck M. Radiocarbon Dating of Cremated Bones: An Overview. In: Grupe G, McGlynn GC (eds) Isotopic Landscapes in Bioarchaeology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, pp. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Biggest Source of Plastic Trash You’ve Never Heard Of. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Government: Overtime Costs Exceed Those of Neighboring Governments. GGD-97-159BR, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 11 September 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orozco M. Music preference and its effects on emotion processes and identity development in young adult females: An examination of the ‘emo’ subculture. Doctoral Dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. The Ball at Their Feet, Their Fate in Their Hands. New York Times, 12 July 2011, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Pain
AbbreviationBr. J. Pain
ISSN (print)2049-4637
ISSN (online)2049-4645
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles