How to format your references using the British Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kuratani S. Evolution. A muscular perspective on vertebrate evolution. Science 2013; 341: 139–140.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Xavier KB, Bassler BL. Interference with AI-2-mediated bacterial cell-cell communication. Nature 2005; 437: 750–753.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Saitta EKH, Legron-Rodriguez T, Bowdon MA. IBI* series winner. An inquiry into the water around us. Science 2013; 341: 971–972.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Chuck G, Muszynski M, Kellogg E, et al. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the branched silkless1 gene in maize. Science 2002; 298: 1238–1241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ness L. Securing Utility and Energy Infrastructures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
1.
Small CG (ed). Functional Equations and How to Solve Them. New York, NY: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kaeslin H. Semiconductor Technology and the Energy Efficiency of ICT. In: Hilty LM, Aebischer B (eds) ICT Innovations for Sustainability. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 105–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Pain.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Crow Brains Reveal Secrets of Their Intelligence. IFLScience, https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/crow-brains-reveal-secrets-their-intelligence/ (2013, accessed 30 October 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Pell Grant Costs. HEHS-94-215R, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 28 September 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sumner I. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: Simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex systems. Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Schuman M. Fresh Worries in an Old Problem for the Global Market: Rising Debt in China. New York Times, 18 June 2017, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Pain
AbbreviationBr. J. Pain
ISSN (print)2049-4637
ISSN (online)2049-4645
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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