How to format your references using the British Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hooper LV. Immunology. Innate lymphoid cells sweeten the pot. Science 2014; 345: 1248–1249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vicoso B, Bachtrog D. Reversal of an ancient sex chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila. Nature 2013; 499: 332–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Herbst J, Heyne K, Diller R. Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin chromophore isomerization. Science 2002; 297: 822–825.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mizukami J, Sato T, Camps M, et al. ASK1 promotes the contact hypersensitivity response through IL-17 production. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 4714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant G, Broniatowski M. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Murthy DNP. Warranty Management and Product Manufacture. London: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Kainen PC, Kůrková V, Sanguineti M. Approximating Multivariable Functions by Feedforward Neural Nets. In: Bianchini M, Maggini M, Jain LC (eds) Handbook on Neural Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 143–181.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Fang J. Remote-Controlled Contraceptive Implant That Lasts 16 Years. IFLScience, (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Program To Increase Graduates From Health Professions Schools and Improve the Quality of Their Education. B-164031(2), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 3 October 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McAlpine TE. College students and career: An exploration of vocational anticipatory socialization. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Neediest Cases Assists With a Christmas Tree. New York Times, 25 December 1993, p. 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Pain
AbbreviationBr. J. Pain
ISSN (print)2049-4637
ISSN (online)2049-4645
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles