How to format your references using the British Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goudsmit J. Retrospective. Joep Lange (1954-2014). Science 2014; 345: 881.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleinberg J, Lawrence S. Network analysis. The structure of the Web. Science 2001; 294: 1849–1850.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prosser BL, Ward CW, Lederer WJ. X-ROS signaling: rapid mechano-chemo transduction in heart. Science 2011; 333: 1440–1445.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rabone J, Yue Y-F, Chong SY, et al. An adaptable peptide-based porous material. Science 2010; 329: 1053–1057.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girling P. Operational Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Vieira M, Ho P (eds). Experiments in Unit Operations and Processing of Foods. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ikegami Y, Ito K, Ishii H, et al. Development of a Tracking Sound Game for Exercise Support of Visually Impaired. In: Salvendy G, Smith MJ (eds) Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting with Information: Symposium on Human Interface 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 31–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Human Has Been ‘Designed’ To Survive In Car Crashes. IFLScience, (2016, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Impact of FAA Legislation on Passenger Facilities Charges and Trust Fund Spending. T-RCED-90-104, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 13 August 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aghaee M. Analysis of Dynamics and Optimal Control for an SIR Epidemiological Model with Time-varying Populations. Doctoral Dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zucchino D, Solomon BC. Newly Freed From ISIS but Stuck Without Water, Neighbors Find a Way. New York Times, 16 February 2017, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Pain
AbbreviationBr. J. Pain
ISSN (print)2049-4637
ISSN (online)2049-4645
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles