How to format your references using the Statistics and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brand, S.: Earth monitoring: Whole Earth comes into focus. Nature. 450, 797 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.C., Arkin, A.P.: Cell biology. The case for RNA. Science. 330, 1185–1186 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakravarty, S., Kee, H.-Y., Völker, K.: An explanation for a universality of transition temperatures in families of copper oxide superconductors. Nature. 428, 53–55 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harris, A.C., Kamenetsky, V.S., White, N.C., van Achterbergh, E., Ryan, C.G.: Melt inclusions in veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits. Science. 302, 2109–2111 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anwar, S., Carroll, J.J.: Carbon Dioxide Thermodynamic Properties Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Boztaş, S., Lu, H.-F. (francis) eds: Applied Algebra, Algebraic Algorithms and Error-Correcting Codes: 17th International Symposium, AAECC-17, Bangalore, India, December 16-20, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Li, W., Henein, M., Gatzoulis, M.A.: Tricuspid Valve Abnormalities. In: Henein, M. and Gatzoulis, M.A. (eds.) Echocardiography in Adult Congenital Heart Disease. pp. 65–71. Springer, London (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Computing.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Protective Coating Could Revolutionize Waterproofing


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Use of Consultants by NASA. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1970)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raynor, S.L.: A Critical Quantitative Examination of the Relationship between Constructs of Engagement and Latino College Completion, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Irving, J.: It Takes a Commune, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brand 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brand 2007; Liu and Arkin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Arkin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Harris et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Computing
AbbreviationStat. Comput.
ISSN (print)0960-3174
ISSN (online)1573-1375
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles