How to format your references using the Statistics and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirchman, D.: Journal club. A microbial ecologist learns something new from an old-fashioned study. Nature. 459, 13 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, T.D., Bar-Anan, Y.: Psychology. The unseen mind. Science. 321, 1046–1047 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Discher, D.E., Mooney, D.J., Zandstra, P.W.: Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science. 324, 1673–1677 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barrera, N.P., Di Bartolo, N., Booth, P.J., Robinson, C.V.: Micelles protect membrane complexes from solution to vacuum. Science. 321, 243–246 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Werner, M.: Global Displacements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Rau, P.L.P. ed: Cross-Cultural Design. Methods, Practice, and Case Studies: 5th International Conference, CCD 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Strobel, M., Gengenbach, V.: HDR Video Cameras. In: Hoefflinger, B. (ed.) High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) Vision. pp. 73–97. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Computing.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: New Technique Mimics Animal Senses To Screen For Toxic Chemicals,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Social Security: Service to the Public--Accuracy of the 800 Phone Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, B.: From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Engels Would Gasp, and Locals Gripe, at a Golden Mile, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirchman 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kirchman 2009; Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Barrera et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Computing
AbbreviationStat. Comput.
ISSN (print)0960-3174
ISSN (online)1573-1375
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles