How to format your references using the Statistics and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ackert, R.P., Jr: Glaciology. An ice sheet remembers. Science. 299, 57–58 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinson, V., Pennisi, E.: Synthetic biology. The allure of synthetic biology. Introduction. Science. 333, 1235 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hays, G.C., Houghton, J.D.R., Myers, A.E.: Endangered species: Pan-Atlantic leatherback turtle movements. Nature. 429, 522 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Anand, K., Ziebuhr, J., Wadhwani, P., Mesters, J.R., Hilgenfeld, R.: Coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) structure: basis for design of anti-SARS drugs. Science. 300, 1763–1767 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoute, K.: Help, I’m Rich! John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Kitazato, H., M. Bernhard, J. eds: Approaches to Study Living Foraminifera: Collection, Maintenance and Experimentation. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Roy, P.H.: Genetic Mechanisms of Transfer of Drug Resistance. In: Mayers, D.L. (ed.) Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: Mechanisms of Drug Resistance. pp. 53–64. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Computing.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Scientists Have Developed A “Galactic” Position System,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Stafford Student Loans: Lower Subsidy Payments Could Achieve Savings Without Affecting Access. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delaney, D.C.: Undergraduate social work students’ perceptions regarding hospice and end-of-life care, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., Rappeport, A.: White House Tempers Ambitions for Cutting Corporate Tax Rate, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ackert 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ackert 2003; Vinson and Pennisi 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinson and Pennisi 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Anand et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Computing
AbbreviationStat. Comput.
ISSN (print)0960-3174
ISSN (online)1573-1375
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles