How to format your references using the Statistics and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bader, J.: Climate science: The origin of regional Arctic warming. Nature. 509, 167–168 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Goyal, S., Zandstra, P.W.: Stem cells: Chasing blood. Nature. 518, 488–490 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz, S.L., Syme, D.A., Shadwick, R.E.: High-speed swimming. Enhanced power in yellowfin tuna. Nature. 410, 770–771 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kemiktarak, U., Ndukum, T., Schwab, K.C., Ekinci, K.L.: Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy. Nature. 450, 85–88 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vacca, J.R.: Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Juhász, Z., Kacsuk, P., Kranzlmüller, D. eds: Distributed and Parallel Systems: Cluster and Grid Computing. Springer US, Boston, MA (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Cerone, P., Dragomir, S.S., Kikianty, E.: Error Bounds for Trapezoid Type Quadrature Rules with Applications for the Mean and Variance. In: Daras, N.J. (ed.) Applications of Mathematics and Informatics in Science and Engineering. pp. 77–93. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Computing.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: 10 Things You Didn’t Know About Vaginas


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Department of Housing and Urban Development: Lack of Accountability for Computer Equipment Leaves These Assets Vulnerable to Loss or Misappropriation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toosi, F.: Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Down the Memory Hole, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bader 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bader 2014; Goyal and Zandstra 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goyal and Zandstra 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kemiktarak et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Computing
AbbreviationStat. Comput.
ISSN (print)0960-3174
ISSN (online)1573-1375
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles