How to format your references using the Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vermeij, G. EVOLUTION. How Victoria’s Fishes Were Knocked from Their Perch. Science 2015, 350, 1038.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, Z.; Wang, J. PIN Architecture for Ultrasensitive Organic Thin Film Photoconductors. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sullivan, M.B.; Waterbury, J.B.; Chisholm, S.W. Cyanophages Infecting the Oceanic Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus. Nature 2003, 424, 1047–1051.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goto-Inoue, N.; Yamada, K.; Inagaki, A.; Furuichi, Y.; Ogino, S.; Manabe, Y.; Setou, M.; Fujii, N.L. Lipidomics Analysis Revealed the Phospholipid Compositional Changes in Muscle by Chronic Exercise and High-Fat Diet. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirwan, M.J. Handbook of Paper and Paperboard Packaging Technology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, 2013; ISBN 9781118470930.
An edited book
Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2015: 14th International Conference, ICEC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 29 - Ocotober 2, 2015, Proceedings; Chorianopoulos, K., Divitini, M., Baalsrud Hauge, J., Jaccheri, L., Malaka, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9353; ISBN 9783319245881.
A chapter in an edited book
Varret, F.; Boukheddaden, K.; Codjovi, E.; Goujon, A. Molecular Switchable Solids: Towards Photo-Controlled Magnetism. In ICAME 2005: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ICAME 2005) held in Montpellier, France, 4–9 September 2005, Volume I (Part I–II/V); Lippens, P.-E., Jumas, J.-C., Génin, J.-M.R., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 37–47 ISBN 9783540498483.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Watch These Leafcutter Ants Carry Fresh Leaves for Their Fungal Farms Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Research: The Department of Transportation Has Made Progress in Coordinating and Reviewing Its Research Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lynch, L.E. Financial Regulation and Economic Performance: A Descriptive Correlation Study of American Financial Institutions. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Putin’s Party Wins in Regional Elections Across Russia. New York Times 2009, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformatics
AbbreviationInformatics (MDPI)
ISSN (online)2227-9709

Other styles