How to format your references using the Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazar, M.A. Gene regulation. One man’s food. Nature 2000, 407, 852–853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srivastava, D.; Olson, E.N. A genetic blueprint for cardiac development. Nature 2000, 407, 221–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, S.; Matthews, J.; Sinha, A. Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O. Science 2008, 319, 1657–1660.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pezo, V.; Louis, D.; Guérineau, V.; Le Caer, J.-P.; Gaillon, L.; Mutzel, R.; Marlière, P. A metabolic prototype for eliminating tryptophan from the genetic code. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1359.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, A.W.; Frobenius, R. RF Measurements for Cellular Phones and Wireless Data Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9780470378014.
An edited book
Singhee, A. Novel Algorithms for Fast Statistical Analysis of Scaled Circuits; Rutenbar, R.A., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; Vol. 46; ISBN 9789048130993.
A chapter in an edited book
Bockus, N.F. Cyber in Space: 2035. In Evolution of Cyber Technologies and Operations to 2035; Blowers, M., Ed.; Advances in Information Security; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 39–57 ISBN 9783319235844.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. A Tale Of Two Epidemics: Media Reporting On Ebola (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Travel and Communicable Diseases: Comprehensive Federal Plan Needed for U.S. Aviation System’s Preparedness; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grandon, J. The Distribution of Apiaceae in Lafayette and St. Martin Parishes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, J. Daughter of Slain Police Officer Is Born, Two Years After Her Father’s Death. New York Times 2017, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformatics
AbbreviationInformatics (MDPI)
ISSN (online)2227-9709

Other styles