How to format your references using the Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rahmstorf, S. Thermohaline Circulation: The Current Climate. Nature 2003, 421, 699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiosis, G.; Boneca, I.G. Selective Cleavage of D-Ala-D-Lac by Small Molecules: Re-Sensitizing Resistant Bacteria to Vancomycin. Science 2001, 293, 1484–1487.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bouchard, M.J.; Wang, L.H.; Schneider, R.J. Calcium Signaling by HBx Protein in Hepatitis B Virus DNA Replication. Science 2001, 294, 2376–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hsieh, Y.-W.; Huang, C.-Y.; Yang, S.-Y.; Peng, Y.-H.; Yu, C.-P.; Chao, P.-D.L.; Hou, Y.-C. Oral Intake of Curcumin Markedly Activated CYP 3A4: In Vivo and Ex-Vivo Studies. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, M. SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2011; ISBN 9781118257753.
An edited book
Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics; Have, H.T., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319094823.
A chapter in an edited book
Noran, O. An Enterprise Architecture Approach towards Environmental Management. In Enterprise Architecture, Integration and Interoperability: IFIP TC 5 International Conference, EAI2N 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings; Bernus, P., Doumeingts, G., Fox, M., Eds.; IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 44–55 ISBN 9783642155086.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Informatics.

Blog post
Fang, J. Fly through Distant Galaxies with Hubble EXtreme Deep Field (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: DHS Needs to Enhance Management of Major Investments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laird, E.C. Training Social Workers to Use Solution-Focused Interviewing with Child Protective Services Clients: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R.; Southall, A. 5 From Baruch College Face Murder Charges in 2013 Fraternity Hazing. New York Times 2015, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformatics
AbbreviationInformatics (MDPI)
ISSN (online)2227-9709

Other styles