How to format your references using the Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac, K. Cell imaging: Beyond the limits. Nature 2015, 526, S50-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chouard, T.; Gray, N. Glia. Nature 2010, 468, 213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pawar, S.; Dell, A.I.; Savage, V.M. Dimensionality of consumer search space drives trophic interaction strengths. Nature 2012, 486, 485–489.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Taira, T.; Silver, P.G.; Niu, F.; Nadeau, R.M. Remote triggering of fault-strength changes on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield. Nature 2009, 461, 636–639.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stauffer, H.B. Contemporary Bayesian and Frequentist Statistical Research Methods for Natural Resource Scientists; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9780470185094.
An edited book
Cell Therapy for Brain Injury; Hess, D.C., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319150628.
A chapter in an edited book
DoVale, J.C.; Fritsche-Neto, R. Root Phenomics. In Phenomics: How Next-Generation Phenotyping is Revolutionizing Plant Breeding; Fritsche-Neto, R., Borém, A., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 49–66 ISBN 9783319136769.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Informatics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. First Known Plant To Sync Pollen Release To The Light Of The Full Moon Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Major Management Issues Facing DOD’s Development and Fielding Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, C. Edgard Varèse and the Visual Avant-Garde: A Comparative Study of Intégrales and Works of Art by Marcel Duchamp. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. How Did Yoda End Up With a King? New York Times 2017, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInformatics
AbbreviationInformatics (MDPI)
ISSN (online)2227-9709

Other styles