How to format your references using the Clinics in Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics in Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A. SPACE SCIENCE: Europe Set to Work on Hubble’s Replacement. Science. 2000;289(5487):2019a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kueh HY, Mitchison TJ. Structural plasticity in actin and tubulin polymer dynamics. Science. 2009;325(5943):960-963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levey DJ, Duncan RS, Levins CF. Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. Nature. 2004;431(7004):39.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li M, Guan S, Wu C, et al. From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ancheyta J. Deactivation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Sawai H, ed. Biological Functions for Information and Communication Technologies: Theory and Inspiration. Vol 320. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ştefanov G. On Rule Embedding Artifacts. In: Pȃrvu I, Sandu G, Toader ID, eds. Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:71-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics in Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Thanks To Reduced Solar Activity, We Could Be Heading For A Mini Ice Age In 2030. IFLScience. Published July 13, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evaluations of Even Start Family Literacy Program Effectiveness. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gittens BE. Perceptions of the applicability of transformational leadership behavior to the leader role of academic department chairs: A study of selected universities in Virginia. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. One Drugstore Too Many, One Grocery Too Few? New York Times. July 16, 2000:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics in Dermatology
AbbreviationClin. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)0738-081X

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