How to format your references using the Clinics in Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics in Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis J. From signals to patterns: space, time, and mathematics in developmental biology. Science. 2008;322(5900):399-403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milinski M, Rockenbach B. Economics. Spying on others evolves. Science. 2007;317(5837):464-465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quattrociocchi W, Caldarelli G, Scala A. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4938.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Robert T, Vanoli F, Chiolo I, et al. HDACs link the DNA damage response, processing of double-strand breaks and autophagy. Nature. 2011;471(7336):74-79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin BR. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Passerini K. Information Technology for Small Business: Managing the Digital Enterprise. (El Tarabishy A, Patten K, eds.). New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Aldana-Reyes X. Discipline… But Punish!: Foucault, Agamben and Torture Porn’s Thanotopolitical Scaffold. In: de Valk M, ed. Screening the Tortured Body: The Cinema as Scaffold. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:51-69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics in Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stroke Patients Recovering After Receiving Stem Cell Therapy. IFLScience. Published August 8, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blazer AE. “I Am Otherwise”: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject. 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K, Haberman M. Condemnation For President By a Top Aide. New York Times. August 25, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics in Dermatology
AbbreviationClin. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)0738-081X

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