How to format your references using the Clinics in Dermatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics in Dermatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Munk W. Ocean science. Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science. 2003;300(5628):2041-2043.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milhous WK, Weina PJ. Plant science. The botanical solution for malaria. Science. 2010;327(5963):279-280.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang K, Li Q, Fan S. Nanotechnology: spinning continuous carbon nanotube yarns. Nature. 2002;419(6909):801.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van Dam JA, Nazarov YV, Bakkers EPAM, De Franceschi S, Kouwenhoven LP. Supercurrent reversal in quantum dots. Nature. 2006;442(7103):667-670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen S, Huang P. Principles of Tribology. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2017.
An edited book
Kato N, Kawata M, Pitman RK, eds. PTSD: Brain Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Springer Japan; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang JG, Yang J. The New Membership of Loan Club—P2P Online Lending. In: Yang J, ed. Financing without Bank Loans: New Alternatives for Funding SMEs in China. Springer; 2016:55-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics in Dermatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA Announces Plans To Send Astronauts To Mars In Mid-2030s. IFLScience. Published December 2, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Medicare: Information Systems Modernization Needs Stronger Management and Support. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake DA. Viscoelastic Characterization of Vapor-Grown Carbon Nanofiber/Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites Using a Response Surface Methodology. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harwood J. Why Trumpism May Not Endure. New York Times. January 21, 2017:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics in Dermatology
AbbreviationClin. Dermatol.
ISSN (print)0738-081X

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