How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chast, François. 2006. Obituary: Pierre Potier (1934-2006). Nature 440: 291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huebsch, Nathaniel, and David J. Mooney. 2009. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials. Nature 462: 426–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raebiger, Hannes, Stephan Lany, and Alex Zunger. 2008. Charge self-regulation upon changing the oxidation state of transition metals in insulators. Nature 453: 763–766.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Olguin, Gianni, Christelle Yacou, Simon Smart, and João C. Diniz da Costa. 2013. Tailoring the oxidation state of cobalt through halide functionality in sol-gel silica. Scientific reports 3: 2449.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dorronsoro, Bernabé, Patricia Ruiz, Grégoire Danoy, Yoann Pigné, and Pascal Bouvry. 2014. Evolutionary Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schmidt, Gerhard, Huseyin Abut, Kazuya Takeda, and John H. L. Hansen, ed. 2014. Smart Mobile In-Vehicle Systems: Next Generation Advancements. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pődör, Andrea. 2011. The Methodological Advantages of using Web Server in Teaching GIS. In Advances in Cartography and GIScience. Volume 2: Selection from ICC 2011, Paris, ed. Anne Ruas, 73–82. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. New Gene-Editing Technique Can Change A Single Base In DNA. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Army Aviation Testing: Need to Reassess Consolidation Plan. NSIAD-96-87. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santella Steen, Sheila. 2017. The Potential of Television Programming as a Resource to Facilitate Academic Progress for Students who have a Specific Learning Disability in Reading. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cave, Damien, and Isabella Kwai. 2017. Drug Trafficker and Australian Obsession Returns Home. New York Times, May 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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