How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haszeldine, R. Stuart. 2009. Carbon capture and storage: how green can black be? Science (New York, N.Y.) 325: 1647–1652.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sattler, Aaron, and Gerard Parkin. 2010. Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings. Nature 463: 523–526.
A journal article with 3 authors
DeRenzo, Cynthia, Kimberly J. Reese, and Geraldine Seydoux. 2003. Exclusion of germ plasm proteins from somatic lineages by cullin-dependent degradation. Nature 424: 685–689.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meinshausen, Malte, Nicolai Meinshausen, William Hare, Sarah C. B. Raper, Katja Frieler, Reto Knutti, David J. Frame, and Myles R. Allen. 2009. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature 458: 1158–1162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi, Luca, and Tao Zhang. 2012. Vehicle Safety Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Berkhout, Ben, Hildegund C. J. Ertl, and Marc S. Weinberg, ed. 2015. Gene Therapy for HIV and Chronic Infections. Vol. 848. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Böcker, Sebastian, and Jan Baumbach. 2013. Cluster Editing. In The Nature of Computation. Logic, Algorithms, Applications: 9th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2013, Milan, Italy, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings, ed. Paola Bonizzoni, Vasco Brattka, and Benedikt Löwe, 33–44. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. Unpredictable Temperature Swings Boost Death Rates in the U.S. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 15.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Financial Management: NASA’s Financial Reports Are Based on Unreliable Data. AFMD-93-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Florio, Mandy Lynn. 2012. Assessing the impacts of knowing natural team player styles on team satisfaction and cohesion. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, John. 2017. In the Hands of a Pro. New York Times, February 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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