How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helbing, Dirk. 2013. Globally networked risks and how to respond. Nature 497: 51–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siller, S., and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. 2001. Sexual selection and the maintenance of sex. Nature 411: 689–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skipper, Magdalena, Ritu Dhand, and Philip Campbell. 2012. Presenting ENCODE. Nature 489: 45.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McKeegan, K. D., A. P. A. Kallio, V. S. Heber, G. Jarzebinski, P. H. Mao, C. D. Coath, T. Kunihiro, et al. 2011. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun inferred from captured solar wind. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332: 1528–1532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singh, Jasveer. 2017. Functional Software Size Measurement Methodology with Effort Estimation and Performance Indication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meijers, Huub, Bernhard Dachs, and Paul J. J. Welfens, ed. 2008. Internationalisation of European ICT Activities: Dynamics of Information and Communications Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Naunheimer, Harald, Bernd Bertsche, Joachim Ryborz, and Wolfgang Novak. 2011. Matching Engine and Transmission. In Automotive Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application, ed. Bernd Bertsche, Joachim Ryborz, and Wolfgang Novak, 115–139. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. Nanostructure Of Dragonfly Wings Kills Bacteria By Tearing Them To Pieces. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Airport Finance: Using Airport Grant Funds for Security Projects Has Affected Some Development Projects. GAO-03-27. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garraway, Ossian L. 2008. A study of the relationship between corporate leaders’ beliefs and the firm’s strategic decisions. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2008. Russian Billionaires Still Like Valuable Art. New York Times, October 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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