How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gumbsch, Peter. 2003. Materials science. Modeling strain hardening the hard way. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 1857–1858.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, Beth, and Zvulun Elazar. 2011. Development. Inheriting maternal mtDNA. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334: 1069–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tomonaga, Masaki, Yuka Uwano, and Toyoshi Saito. 2014. How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans. Scientific reports 4: 3717.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bergthorsson, Ulfar, Keith L. Adams, Brendan Thomason, and Jeffrey D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Bo, and Dongyuan Qiu. 2014. Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Bourgeois, Julien, and Wolfgang Minker, ed. 2009. Time-Domain Beamforming and Blind Source Separation: Speech Input in the Car Environment. Vol. 3. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonacci, Ognjen. 2015. Surface Waters and Groundwater in Karst. In Karst Aquifers—Characterization and Engineering, ed. Zoran Stevanović, 149–169. Professional Practice in Earth Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Personal Helicopters Instead Of Cars Could Become A Reality. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 20.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Gulf War Illnesses: Federal Research Strategy Needs Reexamination. T-NSIAD-98-104. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, Ben. 2012. Improving the performance of hyperspectral target detection. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Sean. 1999. What Did You Expect, the Spanish Inquisition? New York Times, July 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 1].
This sentence cites four references [1, 1, 1, 1].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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