How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Axtell, R. L. 2001. Zipf distribution of U.S. firm sizes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293: 1818–1820.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hetherington, Alistair M., and F. Ian Woodward. 2003. The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424: 901–908.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mehlmann, Lisa M., Teresa L. Z. Jones, and Laurinda A. Jaffe. 2002. Meiotic arrest in the mouse follicle maintained by a Gs protein in the oocyte. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297: 1343–1345.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kang, Insoon, Yong Wang, Corbin Reagan, Yumei Fu, Michael X. Wang, and Li-Qun Gu. 2013. Designing DNA interstrand lock for locus-specific methylation detection in a nanopore. Scientific reports 3: 2381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kääriäinen, Tommi, David Cameron, Marja-Leena Kääriäinen, and Arthur Sherman. 2013. Atomic Layer Deposition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Klinkel, Sven, Christoph Butenweg, Gao Lin, and Britta Holtschoppen, ed. 2014. Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities: Proceedings of the International Conference on Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities (SeDIF-Conference). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeaman, M. R., and A. S. Bayer. 2006. Antimicrobial Peptides Versus Invasive Infections. In Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease, ed. William M. Shafer, 111–152. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Study Of More Than 3,500 Human Brains Reveals The Cause Of Alzheimer’s Disease. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies. T-NSIAD-96-238. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada, Hirokazu. 2008. Modulation of BACE1 by a novel sorting nexin in Alzheimer’s disease. Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. AMC and Comcast to Offer A Commercial-Free Option. New York Times, June 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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