How to format your references using the Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jha, A. 2001. Mass-spectrometry experience is in demand. Nature 410: 129–130.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pastinen, Tomi, and Thomas J. Hudson. 2004. Cis-acting regulatory variation in the human genome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 647–650.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donlea, Jeffrey M., Narendrakumar Ramanan, and Paul J. Shaw. 2009. Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 105–108.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nakatsu, Toru, Susumu Ichiyama, Jun Hiratake, Adrian Saldanha, Nobuyuki Kobashi, Kanzo Sakata, and Hiroaki Kato. 2006. Structural basis for the spectral difference in luciferase bioluminescence. Nature 440: 372–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pevsner, Jonathan. 2005. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baluška, František, Stefano Mancuso, and Dieter Volkmann, ed. 2006. Communication in Plants: Neuronal Aspects of Plant Life. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dürr, Detlef, and Stefan Teufel. 2009. Chance. In Bohmian Mechanics: The Physics and Mathematics of Quantum Theory, ed. Detlef Dürr, 49–107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. How Do Parasites Control Their Hosts? IFLScience. IFLScience. March 20.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Amtrak’s Strategic Business Plan: Progress to Date. RCED-96-187. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freedman, Ryan. 2014. Assessing the functional recovery and connectivity potential of restored estuaries in southern California using juvenile predator fish movements. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. You Say Clutter, I Say Canopy, Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off. New York Times, June 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInflammation
ISSN (print)0360-3997
ISSN (online)1573-2576
Immunology and Allergy

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