How to format your references using the Infectious Diseases of Poverty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infectious Diseases of Poverty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gingerich O. A radical reorientation. Nature. 2004;430:407.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Phillpot SR, Sinnott SB. Materials science. Simulating multifunctional structures. Science. 2009;325:1634–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Doi T, Behera SK, Yamagata T. Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2892.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jing H, Zhang G, Meng L, Meng Q, Mo H, Tai Y. Gradually elevated expression of Gankyrin during human hepatocarcinogenesis and its clinicopathological significance. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bâzu M, Băjenescu T. Failure Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Panizzon RG, Seegenschmiedt MH, editors. Radiation Treatment and Radiation Reactions in Dermatology. 2nd ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Griol D, Molina JM. Context-Aware Conversational Agents Using POMDPs and Agenda-Based Simulation. In: Molina JM, Corredera JRC, Pérez MFC, Ortega-García J, Barbolla AMB, editors. User-Centric Technologies and Applications: Proceedings of the CONTEXTS 2011 Workshop. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Orangutan Learns To Produce Human-Like Sounds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Challenges Remain for VA’s Sharing of Electronic Health Records with DOD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Mar. Report No.: GAO-09-427T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rosenberg EL. Learning to live: The clinical importance of first-person accounts of recovery from anorexia nervosa [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. Framing a Statement. New York Times. 2010 Sep 2;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfectious Diseases of Poverty
AbbreviationInfect. Dis. Poverty
ISSN (online)2049-9957

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