How to format your references using the Expert Review of Medical Devices citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Medical Devices. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. A winning proposal. Nature. 2003;426:102–103.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan AJ, Christensen PR. Coils and polygonal crust in the Athabasca Valles region, Mars, as evidence for a volcanic history. Science. 2012;336:449–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coumou D, Driesner T, Heinrich CA. The structure and dynamics of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Science. 2008;321:1825–1828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giraldez AJ, Mishima Y, Rihel J, et al. Zebrafish MiR-430 promotes deadenylation and clearance of maternal mRNAs. Science. 2006;312:75–79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis AK, Zapranis AD. Wavelet Neural Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Parker D, editor. Bacterial Activation of Type I Interferons. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Calcavecchia NM, Ardagna D, Di Nitto E. The Emergence of Load Balancing in Distributed Systems: the SelfLet Approach. In: Ardagna D, Zhang L, editors. Run-time Models for Self-managing Systems and Applications. Basel: Springer; 2010. p. 97–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Medical Devices.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Scorpion Venom Could Yield New Cancer Treatment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Practitioner Data Bank: Information on Small Medical Malpractice Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992. Report No.: IMTEC-92-56. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuehling AL. “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Warm and Weird Toasts to Russia’s Crown Jewel; St. Petersburg Celebrates 300 Years With Everything From Pornography to Preservation. New York Times. 2003 May 28;E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Medical Devices
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Med. Devices
ISSN (print)1743-4440
ISSN (online)1745-2422
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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