How to format your references using the Infection Prevention in Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection Prevention in Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice M. Physics. Superconductivity with a twist. Science 2006;314:1248–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazzaro BP, Rolff J. Immunology. Danger, microbes, and homeostasis. Science 2011;332:43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt D, Ferrarese L, Joseph CL. No supermassive black hole in M33? Science 2001;293:1116–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Medema RH, Kops GJ, Bos JL, Burgering BM. AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras and PKB through p27kip1. Nature 2000;404:782–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi L, Zhang T. Vehicle Safety Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Pinn AB, editor. Humanism and Technology: Opportunities and Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fikentscher W, Hacker P, Podszun R. Conclusion: the Concept of FairEconomy. In: Hacker P, Podszun R, editors. FairEconomy: Crises, Culture, Competition and the Role of Law, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 149–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection Prevention in Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientist Spotlight: In Memoriam 2013. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caltrider CS. Critical Pedagogy Unit of Ceramics Instruction: Fostering Civic Engagement in California High School Students. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Decades Later, Revisiting a Death in the Family. New York Times 2013:A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection Prevention in Practice
ISSN (print)2590-0889

Other styles