How to format your references using the Infection and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection and Immunity (IAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kellermann KI. 2003. Obituary: Grote Reber (1911-2002). Nature 421:596.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zheng J, Jia Z. 2010. Structure of the bifunctional isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase. Nature 465:961–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaganovich D, Kopito R, Frydman J. 2008. Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments. Nature 454:1088–1095.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Valladas H, Clottes J, Geneste JM, Garcia MA, Arnold M, Cachier H, Tisnérat-Laborde N. 2001. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art. Nature 413:479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond N. 2013. Between Skins. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
2007. IP Operations and Management: 7th IEEE International Workshop, IPOM 2007 San José, USA, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilk S, Michalowski M, Tan X, Michalowski W. 2014. Using First-Order Logic to Represent Clinical Practice Guidelines and to Mitigate Adverse Interactions, p. 45–61. In Miksch, S, Riaño, D, ten Teije, A (eds.), Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection and Immunity.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. Astronomers Asked To Observe “Alien Megastructure Star” In More Detail. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. [Department of the Interior: Migratory Bird Hunting Final Rule]. OGC-96-48. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray RT. 2015. Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2016. Election Night, With a Play in Real Time. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection and Immunity
AbbreviationInfect. Immun.
ISSN (print)0019-9567
ISSN (online)1098-5522
Infectious Diseases

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