How to format your references using the Infection and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection and Immunity (IAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark MK. 2012. Continental collision slowing due to viscous mantle lithosphere rather than topography. Nature 483:74–77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bao J, Bawendi MG. 2015. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer. Nature 523:67–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zarnetske PL, Skelly DK, Urban MC. 2012. Ecology. Biotic multipliers of climate change. Science 336:1516–1518.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu Z, Yan H, Wang K, Kuang T, Zhang J, Gui L, An X, Chang W. 2004. Crystal structure of spinach major light-harvesting complex at 2.72 A resolution. Nature 428:287–292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro LA, Pagliaro AM. 2011. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hinze M. 2009. Optimization with PDE Constraints. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Humphreys H, Winter B, Paul M. 2013. Microbiology Laboratory Diagnosis of Infection, p. 43–54. In Winter, B, Paul, M (eds.), Infections in the Adult Intensive Care Unit. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection and Immunity.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. Incredibly Preserved 47-Million-Year-Old Pregnant Mare Reveals Horse Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Railroad Financing: Stakeholders’ Views on Recent Changes to the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program. GAO-16-714R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones C. 2015. Evolutionary changes in development associated with a transition in larval nutritional mode in spiralians. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. 2008. Eve Thompson and Richard Robinson. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection and Immunity
AbbreviationInfect. Immun.
ISSN (print)0019-9567
ISSN (online)1098-5522
Infectious Diseases

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