How to format your references using the Infection and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection and Immunity (IAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vrakking M. 2010. Journal club. A physicist discusses how to visualize a molecule changing shape. Nature 465:271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tam WY, Ma CHE. 2014. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are proliferating microglia with distinct M1/M2 phenotypes. Sci Rep 4:7279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Priola SA, Chesebro B, Caughey B. 2003. Biomedicine. A view from the top--prion diseases from 10,000 feet. Science 300:917–919.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Waks E, Inoue K, Santori C, Fattal D, Vuckovic J, Solomon GS, Yamamoto Y. 2002. Secure communication: quantum cryptography with a photon turnstile. Nature 420:762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye A, Mun E-Y. 2012. Log-Linear Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
2010. Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordéus K, Båge R, Gustafsson H, Glinwood R, Söderquist L. 2016. A Small Expose on Bovine Pheromones: with Special Reference to Modifications of the Reproductive Cycle, p. 33–42. In Schulte, BA, Goodwin, TE, Ferkin, MH (eds.), Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. One In Six Species Faces Extinction As A Result Of Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. National Science Foundation: Need for Additional Icebreaking Research Vessel Not Demonstrated. RCED-95-77. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parisi J. 2012. Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2016. Backup Catcher’s Unlikely Three-Run Blast Helps Nationals Even Series. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection and Immunity
AbbreviationInfect. Immun.
ISSN (print)0019-9567
ISSN (online)1098-5522
Infectious Diseases

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