How to format your references using the Infection and Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection and Immunity (IAI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vega-Villa K. 2014. Biodiversity: Ecuador deters protection efforts. Science 343:248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephens BB, Keeling RF. 2000. The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations. Nature 404:171–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic J, Burgess N, O’Keefe J. 2012. Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science 337:853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng Y, Yang J, Liu H, Ye F, Yang J. 2014. Selective electrocatalysts toward a prototype of the membraneless direct methanol fuel cell. Sci Rep 4:3813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christophers B. 2013. Banking Across Boundaries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
2014. Clusters in Nuclei, Volume 3. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuosmanen T, Keshvari A, Matin RK. 2015. Discrete and Integer Valued Inputs and Outputs in Data Envelopment Analysis, p. 67–103. In Zhu, J (ed.), Data Envelopment Analysis: A Handbook of Models and Methods. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection and Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Monster Black Hole Awakens After 26 Years of Slumber. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Highlights of a Forum: 3D Printing: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Implications of Additive Manufacturing. GAO-15-505SP. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripathi RB. 2008. Oligodendrogensis Following Experimental Spinal Cord Injury. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Winerip M. 2015. In Beatings, Inmates Feared a ‘Captain America.’ New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection and Immunity
AbbreviationInfect. Immun.
ISSN (print)0019-9567
ISSN (online)1098-5522
Infectious Diseases

Other styles